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历年考研英语真题核心词汇

历年考研英语真题核心词汇  
2008-2012 五年版  
北京新东方国内考试部 金凌虹  
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013 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语部分  
历年考研英语真题核心词汇  
北京新东方国内考试部 金凌虹  
北京新东方国内考试部考研项目  
北京新东方国内考试部无忧考研 VIP 项目  
北京新东方国内考试部词汇项目  
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、 三问《考研大纲词汇》 !  
1) 考多少个?  
2
)考哪些个?  
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3) 考了再考?  
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996-2010 年考研英语真题  
复现单词比例  
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011/2012 年考研英语真题词汇-复现单词比例  
年份  
旧词  
新词  
总词汇  
新词比例  
旧词比例  
2
2
011  
012  
916  
880  
187  
166  
1103  
1046  
16.95%  
15.87%  
84.13%  
84.13%  
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value ['v?lju:]  
n.价值, 价格, 重要性, 重视 (pl)价值观, 数值  
v.估价, 重视, 评价  
Americans today don’t place a very high value on intellect.2004-T4  
Having children is highly valued by the public.2011-T4  
2
Justice['d??stis]  
n.公平, 公正, 正义, 司法, 法官, 法律制裁  
Justices signaled that too many patents were being  
upheld for "inventions" that are obvious. 2010-T2  
The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices  
have become an important issue recently.2010-Cloze  
3
abound[??baund]  
vi.大量存在;(inwith)充满,富于  
Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and  
self-deception abound. 2012-T3  
As the economy picks up, opportunities  
for aspiring leaders will abound.2011-T2  
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2
、 怎么了,背过的单词呢?  
设置文章的词汇命制的“四座大山”  
1) 派生词 18%  
impartial [im'pɑ:??l] adj.  
The court‘s reputation for being independent and impartial.2012-CLOZE  
lameness ['leimnis] n.  
Critique of the lameness of many public-health campaign. -2012-T1  
glaring [?gle?ri?] a.  
glare [gle?] vi.怒目而视;发射强光 n.强光;怒视;炫耀  
The most glaring flaw of the social cure is that it doesnt work well for very long. 2012-T1  
Unconsciously  
Standardized  
Unconventional  
Constitutionality  
Underprivileged  
Commonality  
Antidisestablishmentarianism  
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2) 熟词僻义 —— 熟悉单词冷僻含义  
1 Celebrate [?selibreit]  
vt.庆祝;  
vi.庆祝,过节  
?
?
All the reasons to celebrate the computer. 2012-新  
In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation. 2011-T4  
2 Measurable [?me??r?bl]  
a.可测量的;  
Because hard laughter is difficult to sustain, a good laugh is unlikely to have measurable  
benefits as walking or jogging does.2011-完  
?
3 Hedge [hed?]  
n.树篱;障碍物 vt.用篱笆围 vi.  
?
Apatent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. 2011-T2  
4 Strike [straik]  
v./ n.罢工;袭击;打;折磨;发现;敲响  
?
That description seems likely to have struck at least someTimes readers as faint praise.  
5 Remove [ri?mu:v]  
vt.移开;脱下;去掉;把免职,开除  
be removed from  
?
People in the network are just two levels removed from the initial influentials.2010-T3  
?
We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews. 2010-T1  
Reflect [ri?flekt]  
v.反映;反射,映现;  
?
McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of  
company he wanted to run.2011-T2  
?
Most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve  
moral judgment.2006-翻  
Plant  
be subject to review  
calling  
precisely reason  
Compromise  
approach  
community preserve context  
credit  
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3) 词组和搭配  
1
Bear [b??]  
vt.忍受;承担;怀有;运输 n.熊;卖空者  
Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis.2012-新  
?
2 Nothing more than  
?
Teenagers desire nothing more than fitting in. 2012-新  
3 Anything less than  
?
Child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience.2011-T4  
4
Point [p?int]  
n.要点,观点;点;时刻 v.指,指明  
?
It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to  
imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city  
newspapers.2010-T1  
?
Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are  
missing the point.2011-T1  
5 Effect [i?fekt]  
n.结果;影响[ pl.]个人财物 vt.实现,引起  
?
Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects  
would eat us up if birds failed to control them.2010-翻译  
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Gain [gein]  
n.获得, 收益, 增益 v.获得, 到达, 增加  
?
Those who master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe stand to reap considerable  
gains.2010-新  
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Stem [stem]  
n.茎,干;词干  
?
Whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether  
it stems from the common ancestor is, as yet, an unanswered question. 2005-T1  
?
The researchers' argument stems from a simple observing about social influence.2010-T3  
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4) 连字符词  
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A state-sponsored program  
An HIV-prevention initiative  
Spot-on critique  
Mom-and-pop grocery  
Public-sector workers  
A sober-sided classical-music critic  
Life-enriching experience  
Moment-to-moment joy  
Mom-to-be  
Round-the-clock help  
In-depth exploration  
Thought-provoking phenomenon  
The most far-reaching change  
One-click online payment system  
economic-minded forester  
General-circulation dailies  
High-priced option  
A small-scale study  
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008 年考研英语真题词汇  
1 Intelligent [in?telid??nt]  
a. 聪明的,有才智的  
2 Hypothesis [hai?pisis]  
n.假说,假设,前提  
3
Dare [d??]  
vt.敢;激 aux.v.[用于疑问等句]敢,竟敢  
?
The idea that some groups of people may  
be more intelligent than others  
is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name.  
4 Prepare [pri?p??]  
v.准备,预备  
?
But Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway.  
5
Rare [re?]  
a. 稀有的;珍奇的;稀薄的;煎得嫩的  
6 Independent [?indi?pend?nt]  
a.独立的,自主的;中立的;无关的  
7 Institution [?insti?tju:??n]  
n.社会公共机构;制度,习俗;设立,制定  
He is that rare bird, a scientist  
who works independently of any institution.  
?
8 Popularize ['p?pjul?raiz]  
vt.普及, 使流行, 使通俗化  
9 Previous [?pri:vi?s]a.先,前,以前的;(to)之前  
10 Bacterial [b?k'tiri?l]adj.细菌的  
11 Infection [in?fek??n]n.传染病;传染,传播,感染  
?
He helped popularize the idea  
that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause  
were actually infections  
9
12 Arouse [??rauz]  
vt.引起,激起,唤起;唤醒  
13 Controversy [?k?ntr?v?:si]  
n.争论,辩论  
This idea aroused much controversy  
when it was first suggested.  
?
14 Tremble [?trembl]  
vi./ n.颤抖,哆嗦;摇晃;担心,焦虑  
15 Be about to 即将  
?
Even he, however, might tremble at  
the thought of what he is about to do.  
16 Publish [?p?bli?]  
vt.出版,刊印;公布,发表  
17 Suggest [s??d?est]  
vt.建议,提议;提出;使人想起,暗示,表明  
18 Humanity [hju:?m?niti]  
n.人类,[总称]();人道[ pl.]人文学科  
19 Bring about  
导致,引起  
?
Together with another two scientists,  
he is publishing a paper which not only suggests  
that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others,  
but explains the process that has brought this about.  
20 In question 正在谈论的  
21 Particular [p??tikjul?]a.特定()的;挑剔的;详细的 n.[ pl.]详情  
22 Originate [??rid?ineit]vi.起源于,来自 vt.创造,创始,开创  
23 Natural selection  
n. []自然选择, 物竞天择说  
?
The group in question are a particular people  
originated from central Europe.  
The process is natural selection.  
10  
24 Generally [?d?en?r?li]  
ad.一般地,通常;普遍地,广泛地  
25 Score [sk?:]  
n.得分;刻痕;二十 v.();刻痕于  
26 Mean value  
n. 平均值  
27 Contribute [k?n?tribju:t]  
vi.捐款,贡献;(to)有助于;投稿 vt.捐献  
28 Disproportionately [?dispr?'p?:??nitli]  
adv. 不成比例地  
?
This group generally do well in IQ test,  
scoring 12-15 points above the mean value of 100,  
and have contributed disproportionately  
to the intellectual and cultural life of the West,  
29 Career [k??ri?]  
n.生涯,职业  
30 Elite [ei?li:t]  
n.[总称]上层人士,实力集团;精英  
31 Renown [ri?naun]  
n.名望,声誉  
32 Affirm [??f?:m]  
vt.断言,坚持声称;证实,确认  
?
As the careers of their elites,  
including several world-renowned scientists, affirm.  
33 Suffer [?s?f?]  
vt.遭受;容忍 vi.受痛苦;受损,变糟  
34 Nasty [?nɑ:sti]  
a.令人讨厌的;困难的;恶劣的;下流的  
35 Genetic [d?i?netik]  
a.遗传()n.[-s]遗传学  
?
They also suffer more often than most people from  
a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer.  
11  
36 Unrelated ['?nri'leitid]  
adj.不相关的, 无亲属关系的  
?
These facts, however,  
have previously been thought unrelated.  
37 Put down to  
vt. 归因于  
38 Value [?v?lju:]  
n.价值;重要性[ pl.]价值观 vt.重视;评价  
?
The former has been put down to social effects,  
such as a strong tradition of valuing education.  
39 Consequence [?k?nsikw?ns]  
n.结果,后果;重要(),重大  
40 Isolation [?ais??lei??n]  
n.隔离,孤立  
The latter was seen as a (an) consequence  
of genetic isolation.  
?
41 Intelligence [in?telid??ns]  
n.智力,智慧,理解力;情报,消息  
42 Intimately [?intimitli]  
ad.密切地;熟悉地  
43 Intimate [?intimit]  
a.亲密的;私人的 vt.暗示,提示 n.至交  
44 Link [li?k]  
v.连接,联系 n.环节,联系,纽带  
?
Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence  
and diseases are intimately linked.  
45 Argument [:gju:m?nt].争论(),辩论;理由;论证  
46 Subject sb./sth to 使某人[某物]经历或遭受某事物  
47 Evolutionary [,ev?`lu?n,eri ] a.进化的,发展的  
?
His argument is that the unusual history of these people  
has subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures  
that have resulted in this paradoxical state of affairs.  
12  
48 Catch up 赶上  
49 Sphere [sfi?]n.();范围,领域  
50 Appear to be vt. 好象是, 仿佛  
51 Way [wei]n.方法;路;方面[ pl.]习俗 ad.非常  
52 Ahead [??hed]ad.在前面();向()前;提前  
53 Undesirable ['?ndi'zair?bl]  
adj. 不受欢迎的, 不良的, 不合意的, 讨厌的  
n. 不受欢迎的人, 不良分子  
54 Category [?k?tig?ri]  
n.种类,类,类别  
While still catching up to men in some spheres of modern life,  
women appear to be way ahead in at least one undesirable category.  
?
55 Particularly [p??tikjul?li]ad.特别,尤其  
56 Susceptible [s?'sept?bl] adj.易受外界影响的, 易受感染的  
57 Depression [di?pre??n]n.抑郁,沮丧;不景气,萧条();  
58 Anxiety [???zai?ti]n.焦虑,挂虑;渴望,热望  
59 Disorder [dis??:d?]n.混乱,凌乱;骚乱,动乱;失调,病  
60 In response to 作为对的反应;回答, 响应  
?
Women are particularly susceptible to  
developing depression and anxiety disorders  
in response to stress compared to men.  
61 Psychiatrist [sai?kai?trist]n.精神科医生,精神病专家  
62 Veteran [?vet?r?n]n.老兵;经验丰富的人,老手  
63 Administration [?d?minis?trei??n]n.管理;管理部门,政府;实行,执行  
?
Dr. Yehuda, chief psychiatrist at New York‘s Veteran‘s  
Administration Hospital.  
64 Hormone [?h?:m?un]n.荷尔蒙,激素  
13  
65 Somehow [?s?mhau]ad.以某种方式();不知怎么地  
?
Studies of both animals and humans have shown that  
sex hormones somehow affect the stress response,  
66 Produce [pr??dju:s, ?pr?dju:s]  
vt.生产,产生;显示;制作 n.()产品  
67 Trigger [?trig?]  
n.扳机;引起反应的行动,触发的 vt.触发,引起  
68 Condition [k?n?di??n]  
n.状况,条件[ pl.]环境 vt.适应;调整状况;决定  
?
Causing females under stress to produce more of  
the trigger chemicals than do males under the same conditions.  
69 Stressed-out adj. 精疲力尽的, 虚弱不堪的  
70 Ovary [??uv?ri]n.[]子房;[]卵巢  
71 Reproductive [?ripr??d?ktiv]a.生殖的;复制的  
72 Organ [??:g?n]  
n.器官;风琴;机构;新闻媒介,宣传工具  
73 Remove [ri?mu:v]  
vt.移开;脱下;去掉;把免职,开除  
?
In several of the studies,  
when stressed-out female rats had their ovaries  
(
the female reproductive organs) removed,  
their chemical responses became equal to those of the males.  
74 Dose [d?us]  
n.(一次)剂量,一剂,一份  
75 Opportunity [??p??tju:niti]  
n.机会,时机  
Adding to a woman‘s increased dose of stress chemicals,  
are her increased ―opportunities‖ for stress.  
?
76 Not necessarily [n?t 'nesis?rili]  
adv. 未必, 不一定  
14  
77 Cope [k?up]  
vi.(with)(成功地)应付,(妥善地)处理  
?
It‘s not necessarily that women don‘t cope as well.  
It‘s just that they have so much more to cope with.  
78 Capacity [k??p?siti]  
n.容量;才能,能力;身份,职位  
79 Tolerate [?t?l?reit]  
vt.容许,承认;容忍,忍受  
?
Their capacity for tolerating stress  
may even be greater than men‘s.  
80 Observe [?b?z?:v]  
vt.注意到;观察;评论;遵守,奉行  
81 Worn out 穿破了的, 疲惫不堪的  
82 Visibly ['vizibli]adv.明显地, 看得见地  
?
She observes, ―it‘s just that they‘re dealing with so many more things  
that they become worn out from it more visibly and sooner.‖  
83 Note [n?ut]  
n.便条;笔记;音符;钞票 vt.注意;记录,指出  
?
Dr. Yehuda notes another difference between the sexes.  
84 Expose [ik?sp?uz]vt.暴露,显露;(to)曝光;揭露,坦露  
85 Be exposed to v. 处于 ... 的作用下, 曝光于, 接触, 面临  
86 In… nature 性质上, 事实上, 实质上, 究竟  
87 Chronic [?kr?nik]a.慢性()的;长久的;积习难改的  
88 Repeated [ri?pi:tid]a.反复的;重复的  
?
I think that the kinds of things that women  
are exposed to tend to be in more of a chronic or repeated nature.  
89 Combat [?k?mb?t]  
n.战斗,斗争,格斗 vt.斗争,与战斗  
?
Men go to war and are exposed to combat stress.  
15  
90 Random [?r?nd?m]a.任意的,随机的  
91 Violence [?vai?l?ns]  
n.暴力,强暴;猛烈,剧烈,强烈  
?
Men are exposed to more acts of random physical violence.  
92 Interpersonal [?int?'p?:s?nl]  
adj.人与人之间的, 人际关系的  
93 Domestic [d??mestik]  
a. 国内的;家()的,家用的;驯养的  
94 Unfortunately [?n?f?:t??nitli]ad.遗憾的是,可惜的是  
95 Tend to 倾向于  
96 One-shot deal  
一次性交易, 一锤子买卖  
?
The kinds of interpersonal violence  
that women are exposed to tend to be in domestic situations,  
by, unfortunately, parents or other family members,  
and they tend not to be one-shot deals.  
97 Wear-and-tear  
磨损和毁坏  
98 Devastating [?dev?steiti?]a.毁灭性的;令人震惊的;强有力的  
?
The wear-and-tear that comes from these longer relationships  
can be quite devastating.  
99 Give birth to(孩子),产();产生  
100. Determined [di?t?:mind]a.坚决的;确定的  
?
Adeline Alvarez married at 18 and gave birth to a son,  
but was determined to finish college.  
1
00+  
1
Struggle [?str?gl]  
16  
vi.奋斗,努力;斗争,搏斗 n.斗争,搏斗  
2
3
College degree n. 大学学位  
Frustration [fr?s?trei??n]  
n.挫折,阻挠  
4
Escape [i?skeip]  
vi.逃跑;逸出 vt.逃避,避开 n.逃跑,逃避  
?
I struggled a lot to get the college degree. I was living in so much frustration  
that that was my escape, to go to school, and get ahead and do better.  
5
6
7
8
Take care of 爱护,照料  
Teenager [?ti:neid??]n.(1319 岁的)青少年  
Rent [rent]v.租借,租用;出租,出借 n.租金,出租  
Payment [?peim?nt]  
n.支付的款项;支付,付款  
9
Debt [det]n.欠款,债务,负债  
10Paycheck ['peit?ek]n. 薪水支票, 工资  
?
It‘s the hardest thing to take care of a teenager, have a job, pay the rent,  
pay the car payment, and pay the debt.  
I lived from paycheck to paycheck.  
1
1
1
1Experience [ik?spi?ri?ns]n./ vt.经历,阅历;经验,感受,体验  
2Severe [si?vi?]a.严重的;严厉的;严峻的;朴素的  
3Describe [di?skraib]  
vt.描写,形容;画出(图形等)  
?
Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe  
chronic stresses Alvarez describes.  
14 Obligation [??bli?gei??n]  
n.义务,责任  
15 Break [breik]  
n.休息 vt.打破;弄坏 vi.破碎;破晓;转晴  
16 Strain [strein]  
17  
n.拉紧[ pl.]旋律 vt.扭伤;绷紧 vi.尽力  
?
But most women today are coping with  
a lot of obligations, with few breaks, and feeling the strain.  
17 Demonstrate [?dem?nstreit]  
vt.证明;说明,显示;演示, 示范  
vi.示威  
18 Diffuse [di?fju:s]  
v.扩散;传播 a.冗长的;四散的,弥漫的  
19 Threaten [retn]  
vt.威胁;预示,是的征兆 vi.构成威胁  
20 Function [?f??k??n]  
n.功能;重大聚会;函数 vi.运行,起作用  
?
Alvarez‘s experience demonstrates the importance of finding ways  
to diffuse stress before  
it threatens your health and your ability to function.  
21Biologically [bai?'l?d?ikli]  
adv. 生物学地  
22 Vulnerable [?v?ln?r?b?l]a.易受伤的,脆弱的;易受攻击的  
?
Women are biologically more vulnerable to stress.  
23 Experienced [ik?spi?ri?nst]a.有经验的;熟练的  
?
Women are more experienced than men in coping with stress.  
24Inclination [?inkli'nei??n]  
n.倾向, 意愿, 趋势, 斜坡, 倾斜度  
? Men and women show different inclinations when faced with stress.  
25 Handle [?h?ndl]vt.处理,应付;操作;拿 n.柄,把手  
?
Women need extra doses of chemicals to handle stress.  
26 Capable [?keip?b?l]a.有能力的,有技能的  
27 Avoid [??v?id]vt.避免,预防,避开  
?
Women are more capable of avoiding stress.  
18  
28 Confront [k?n?fr?nt]vt.遭遇;勇敢地面对,正视;使对质  
29 Temporary [?temp?r?ri]a.暂时的,临时的  
30 Irregular [i?regjul?]a.不规则的;不正当的  
31 Violent [?vai?l?nt]a.暴力引起的,强暴的;猛烈的,强烈的  
32 Durable [?dju?r?bl]a.耐用的,持久的  
33 Frequent [?fri:kw?nt]a.时常发生的,频繁的,常见的  
34 Trivial [?trivi?l]a.琐碎的,不重要的  
?
The stress women confront tends to be  
domestic and temporary/irregular and violent/  
durable and frequent/trivial and random.  
35 Salary [?s?l?ri]n.薪金,薪水  
36 Cover [?k?v?]vt.()盖;占;包括;报道 n.盖子,封面  
37 Household [?haush?uld]n.家庭,户 a.家庭()的;家喻户晓的  
38 Expense [ik?spens]n.价钱,花费,费;[ pl.]开支,业务费用  
?
Alvarez‘s salary barely covered her household expenses.  
39 Gender [?d?end?]n.性别;(语法中的)性  
?
Responses to Stress: Gender Difference  
40 Inequality [?ini'kw?liti] n.不平等, 不平均, 不平坦, []不等式  
?
Gender Inequality: Women Under Stress  
41 Straightforward [?streit?f?:w?d]  
a.正直的,坦率的;易懂的,简单的;直接的  
?
It used to be so straightforward.  
42 Laboratory [l??b?r?t?ri]n.实验室  
43 Submit [s?b?mit]  
vi.(to)屈服,听从 vt.呈送,提交;主张  
19  
44 Journal [?d??:n?l]  
n.杂志,期刊,日报;日志,日记  
?
Ateam of researchers working together in the laboratory  
would submit the results of their research to a journal.  
45 Editor [?edit?]n.编辑,编者,校订者  
46 Affiliation [??fili?ei??n]  
n.入会,加入;隶属,从属关系  
47 Peer [pi?]n.同龄人,同地位的人;贵族 vi.仔细看  
48 Review [ri?vju:]n. vt.审查,回顾;复习;评论;检阅  
?
A journal editor would then remove the authors‘ names and affiliations  
from the paper and send it to their peers for review.  
49 Depend [di?pend]vi.(onupon)依靠;信赖;决定于  
50 Comment [?k?ment]n.评论,意见;闲话,议论 vt.评论  
51 Publication [?p?bli?kei??n]n.出版,发行;出版;公布,发表  
52 Decline [di?klain]n.下降 vi.下降;衰退;谢绝 vt.谢绝  
?
Depending on the comments received,  
the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline it.  
53 Copyright [?k?pirait] n.版权  
54 Rest with 归于, 在于, 取决于  
55 Subscribe [s?b?skraib]  
vi.(to)订阅,订购;同意 vt.捐助,赞助  
?
Copyright rested with the journal publisher,  
and researchers seeking knowledge of the results  
would have to subscribe to the journal.  
20  
56 No longer 不再,已不  
57 Access ['?kses]  
n.入口, 通道 n.接近(的机会), 使用之权  
vt.进入, (电脑)存取  
58 Reality [ri??liti]n.现实,实际;真实  
?
No longer. The Internet is making access to scientific results a reality.  
59 Funding agency  
提供资金的机构  
60 Question [?kwest?(?)n]n.问题;疑问;难题 vt.询问;怀疑  
61 Commercial [k??m?:??l]a.商业()的;商品化() n.商业广告  
62 Restrict [ri?strikt]vt.限制,约束,限定  
?
Pressure from funding agencies,  
who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money  
from government-funded research by restricting access to it.  
63 Issue [?i?u:, ?isju:]  
n./ v.问题;分发,流出;颁布,发行,出版  
64 Far-reaching consequence 深远的影响  
?
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)  
has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this.  
65 Heavy ['hevi]  
adj.(), 重的, 沉重的, 猛烈的  
adv.重地  
66 Makes heavy reading for sb.使某人读起来很沉重  
67 Handsome profit  
可观的利润  
The report makes heavy reading for publishers who have,  
so far, made handsome profits.  
?
21  
68 Signal [?sign?l]  
n.信号;标志 v.发信号;标志着 a.显著的  
69 Key element 关键因素  
70 Scientific endeavor 科学努力  
71 Endeavor [in?dev?]vt. n.努力,尽力,尝试  
?
It signals a change in what has, until now,  
been a key element of scientific endeavor.  
72 Return [ri?t?:n]  
v.返回;恢复;归还 n.返回[ pl.]盈利  
73 Public investment 公共投资  
74 In part 部分地  
75 Distribution [?distri?bju:??n]n.分发,分配;散布,分布  
?
The value of knowledge and the return  
on the public investment in research depends,  
in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.  
76 Core [k?:]n.果心;核心,要点  
77 Estimate [?estim?t, ?estimeit]  
n.估计,估量;评价,看法 vt.估计,估量  
In America, the core scientific publishing market  
is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion.  
?
78 Publisher [?p?bli??]  
n.书籍出版者;发表者  
79 Worldwide [?w?:ld?waid]  
ad.世界范围(),全世界()  
80 Specialize [?spe??laiz]  
vi.(in)专门研究,专攻  
?
The International Association of Scientific,  
Technical and Medical Publishers says that  
there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing  
22  
in these subjects.  
81 Scholarly ['sk?l?li]  
adj.学术性的, 学究气的, 学者派头的  
?
Some 75% of scholarly journals are now online.  
82 Entirely [in?tai?li]ad.完全地;彻底地  
83 Model ['m?dl]  
n.模范, 模特儿, 模型 adj.模范的, 作模型用的  
v.做模型, 模仿, 塑造  
84 Emerge [i?m?:d?]  
vi.(from)()现;发生,显露,暴露  
?
Entirely new business models are emerging.  
85 Identify [ai?dentifai]  
vt.认出,鉴定;把等同于 vi.认同  
?
Three main ones were identified by the report‘s authors.  
86 So-called [?sou ?k?:ld]a.所谓的,号称的  
87 Institutional [?insti'tju:??n?l]adj.制度上的, 惯例的,机构的, 学会的  
88 Subscriber [s?b?skraib?]n.捐款人;预约者  
89 Collection [k??lek??n]  
n.收藏品;收取,收集;聚集,积聚;文集  
90 Site-licensing agreement 网站许可协议  
?
There is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers  
pay for access to a collection of online journal titles  
through site-licensing agreements.  
91 Open-access 开放获取  
92 Typically ['tipikli] adv.典型地, 代表性地, 通常  
?
There is open-access publishing,  
typically supported by asking the  
author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published.  
23  
93 Archive ['ɑ:kaiv]  
n.档案, 档案馆  
vt.存档  
94 Repository [ri?p?zit?ri]  
n.贮藏室,仓库  
?
There are open-access archives,  
where organizations such as universities or international laboratories  
support institutional repositories.  
95 Hybrid [?haibrid]  
n.杂交生物体,杂交植()物;混合()物  
96 Delayed [di'leid]  
adj. 延时的, 拖延的  
?
Other models exist that are hybrids of these three,  
such as delayed open-access.  
97 Freely [?fri:li]ad.自由地;慷慨地  
98 Available [??veil?b?l]a.现成可使用的,可利用的;可得到的  
?
Journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months,  
before making it freely available to everyone whowishes to see it.  
99 Peer-review 同行评议  
?
All this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process,  
at least for the publication of papers.  
100.Background [?b?kgraund]  
n.出身背景;背景资料;(画等的)背景  
?
The background information of journal editing.  
200 +  
Routine [ru:?ti:n]  
1
n.例行公事,惯例 a.例行的,常规的  
?
The publication routine of laboratory reports.  
2 Criticize [?kritisaiz]  
24  
vt.批评,批判;评论,评价  
3 Government-funded research 政府资助的研究  
?
It criticizes government-funded research.  
4 Introduce [?intr??dju:s]  
vt.介绍;引进,传入;提出(议案等)供讨论  
5 Effective [i?fektiv]a.有效的,生效的;印象深刻的;实际的  
6 Means [mi:nz]  
n.方法,手段,工具;金钱,财产  
?
It introduces an effective means of publication.  
7
Upset [?p?set]  
vt.心烦意乱;搅乱 n.不安() a.心烦的  
?
It upsets profit-making journal publishers.  
8 Benefit [?benifit]n.益处;救济(保险) vt.有益于 vi.得益  
9 Considerably [k?n?sid?r?bli]ad.显著地;十分  
?
It benefits scientific research considerably.  
10 Emphasize [?emf?saiz]  
vt.强调,着重,加强的语气  
11 Crucial [?kru:?i?l]  
a.至关重要的,决定性的  
Online publication is significant in that  
it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge.  
?
12 Facilitate [f??siliteit]vt.使变得()容易,使便利  
?
It facilitates public investment in scientific research.  
13 Be required to  
被要求  
14 Cover [?k?v?]  
25  
vt.()盖;占;包括;报道 n.盖子,封面  
?
With the open-access publishing model,  
the author of a paper is required to cover the cost of its publication.  
15 Complete [k?m?pli:t]  
a. 完整的;十足的;完成的 vt.完成;使完全  
16 Submission [s?b'mi??n]  
n.提交, 服从, 屈服, []意见  
?
?
The author of a paper is required to  
complete the peer-review before submission.  
17Pose a threat to sth...产生 威胁  
The Internet is posing a threat to publishers.  
18Mode [m?ud]  
n.方式, 模式, 样式, 风格 n.[音乐]调式 n.时尚  
?
Anew mode of publication is emerging.  
19Channel ['t??nl]  
n.频道, 海峡, 方法, 通道, (消息)渠道  
vt.引导, 形成河道, 集中(精力)  
?
Authors welcome the new channel for publication.  
20 Render [?rend?]  
vt.使得,致使;给予,提供;翻译  
?
Publication is rendered easier by online service.  
21 List [list]  
n.表,目录,名单 vt.编列成表,列举  
?
In the early 1960s Wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players  
in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet.  
22 Professional [pr??fe??n?l]  
a. 职业的,专业的 n.自由职业者,专业人员  
23 Dramatically [dr?'m?tikli]  
adv.戏剧地, 引人注目地,显著的  
?
The bodies playing major professional sports  
have changed dramatically over the years.  
26  
24 Willing [?wili?]  
a.愿意的,乐意的,心甘情愿的  
25 Adjust [??d??st]  
vt.校正,校准,调整;调节 vi.(to)适应  
26 Uniform [?ju:nif?:m]n.制服 a.全都相同的,一律的,清一色的  
27 Fit [fit]v.适合;安装;适应 a.适合的的 n.突发  
28 Frame [freim]  
n.骨架, 身躯, 结构, 框  
v.表达, 制定, ... 框起来, 陷害  
adj.木结构的  
?
Managers have been more than willing  
to adjust team uniforms  
to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.  
29 Obscure [?b?skju?]  
a. 不著名的;费解的 vt.使变模糊,掩盖  
30 Unrecognized ['?n'rek?gnaizd] adj.未被承认的, 未被认出的  
?
The trend in sports, though, may be  
obscuring an unrecognized reality  
31 Generally [?d?en?r?li]  
ad.一般地,通常;普遍地,广泛地  
?
Americans have generally stopped growing.  
32 Inch [int?]  
n.英寸;少量,短距离 v.(使)缓慢地移动  
33 Apparently [??p?r?ntli]  
ad.显然,表面上地  
?
Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago,  
today‘s people especially those born to families  
who have lived in the U.S. for many generations  
apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s.  
34 Not likely to 不太可能  
?
They aren‘t likely to get any taller.  
27  
35 Genetic [d?i?netik]a.遗传() n.[-s]遗传学  
36 Environmental [in?vai?r?n'mentl]adj.环境的, 有关环境的  
37 Pretty much  
几乎, 主要地, 大部分地  
?
In the general population today,  
at this genetic, environmental level,  
we‘ve pretty much gone as far as we can go  
38 Result from  
产生,源自于  
39 Increasingly common practice 愈发普遍的行为  
40 Recruit [ri?kru:t]  
vt.招募,吸收 n.新兵,新成员  
?
In the case of NBAplayers, their increase in height  
appears to result from the increasingly common practice  
of recruiting players from all over the world.  
41 Rarely [?re?li]ad.不常,难得  
42 Calorie [?k?l?ri]n.大卡(食物的热值);卡(路里)  
43 Nutrient [?nju:tri?nt]n.营养品,滋养物 a.营养的,滋养的  
44 Notably ['n?ut?bli]adv. 显著地, 值得注意地, 特别地  
45 Protein [?pr?uti:n]  
n.蛋白质  
46 Feed [fi:d]vt.();向提供 vi.(on) n.饲料  
47 Expand [ik?sp?nd]v.扩大,扩张,扩展;膨胀  
48 Tissue [?ti?u:, -sju:]n.组织;薄纱,薄纸,手巾纸  
?
Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20,  
demands calories and nutrients notably, protein –  
to feed expanding tissues.  
28  
49 Under-nutrition  
营养不足  
50 Childhood [?t?aildhud]n.童年,幼年  
51 Infection [in?fek??n]n.传染病;传染,传播,感染  
52 Get in the way 阻碍, 妨碍  
?
At the start of the 20th century,  
under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way.  
53 Diet and health 饮食和健康  
54 Adolescent [?d??les?nt]  
n.青少年 a.青春期的,青少年的  
55 On average 平均  
?
But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have,  
on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years.  
56 Known as  
被称为, 公认为  
57 Pattern [?p?t?n]  
n.型,模式;花样,图案 vt.仿制  
58 Secular [?sekjul?]  
adj.世俗的, 现世的, 不朽的,非宗教的,长期的  
n.牧师,凡人  
?
This is a pattern known as the secular trend in height.  
59 Genetically [d?e'netik?li]  
adv. 遗传(基因)方面  
60 Advantage [?d?vɑ:ntid?]  
n.优点,有利条件(因素);好处  
61 Substantial [s?b?st?n??l]  
a.可观的;牢固的,结实的;实质的  
?
Genetically speaking,  
29  
there are advantages to avoiding substantial height.  
62 Childbirth ['t?aildb?:θ]n.分娩  
63 Canal [k??n?l]n.运河,沟渠  
?
During childbirth, larger babies  
have more difficulty passing through the birth canal.  
64 Upright [??prait]a.直立的;正直的 ad.挺直着,竖立着  
65 Struggle with ... 斗争  
66 Bipedal [bai'ped?l]adj.两足动物的, 两足的  
67 Posture [?p?st??]n.姿势;看法 vi.摆姿势,装模作样  
68 Withstand [wie?st?nd]vt.经受,承受,抵住  
69 Impose [im?p?uz]vt.(on)强加于;征(税等),处以(罚款等)  
70 Oversize ['?uv?'saiz] adj.超过尺寸的, 过大的 n.特大型  
71 Limb [lim]n.肢,臂,腿;树枝  
?
Even though humans have been upright for millions of years,  
our feet and back continue to struggle with  
bipedal posture and cannot easily  
withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs.  
72 Constraint [k?n?streint]  
n.(on)约束,限制;限制(或约束)性的事物  
73 Architecture ['ɑ:kitekt??]  
n.建筑学, 结构, 一座建筑物, 总称建筑物, 建筑风格  
74 Genetic architecture 基因结构  
75 Organism [??:g?niz?m]n.生物,有机体;机体,有机组织  
76 Anthropologist [?nθr??p?l?d?ist]  
n.人类学家,人类学者  
?
―There are some real constraints  
that are set by the genetic architecture  
of the individual organism,‖  
30  
says anthropologist William Leonard.  
77 Maximum [?m?ksim?m]  
a.最高()的,顶点的 n.最大(限度),顶点  
?
Genetic maximums can change,  
but don‘t expect this to happen soon.  
78 Ensure [in??u?]vt.保证,担保,确保  
79 Workstation ['w?:k?stei??n]n.[]工作站, (包括桌子和计算机的)工作区域  
80 Recruit [ri?kru:t]vt.招募,吸收 n.新兵,新成员  
81 Alteration [??:lt??rei??n]n.改变,变更  
?
Claire C. Gordon ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms  
and workstations fit recruits without alteration.  
82 Unlike [??n?laik]prep.不像,和不同  
83 length [le]n.长,长度,距离;一段,一节  
84 Military uniform  
军服  
?
She says that, unlike those for basketball,  
the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time.  
85 Predict [pri?dikt]vt.预言,预测,预告  
86 In the near future 在不远的将来  
87 Design [di?zain]n.设计;图案;企图 vt.设计;预定,指定  
88 Equipment [i?kwipm?nt]n.设备,器械,装备  
89 By and large 大体上,总的来说  
90 Fairly [?f??li]ad.相当,尚可,还;公平地,公正地  
?
And if you need to predict human height in the near future  
to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large,  
―you could use today‘s data and feel fairly confident.‖  
31  
91 Cite [sait]  
vt.引用,引证;传唤,传讯;表彰,嘉奖  
92 Illustrate [?il?streit]  
vt.说明,阐明;给作插图说明  
93 Popularity [?p?pju?l?riti]  
n.普及;流行;名望  
94 Compare [k?m?pe?]  
vt.(towith)比较;(to)比作 vi.相比  
95 Assess [??ses]vt.进行估价;评价,评论  
?
Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to  
illustrate the change of height of NBAplayers.  
To show the popularity of NBAplayers in the U.S..  
To compare different generations of NBAplayers.  
To assess the achievements of famous NBAplayers.  
96 Modification [?m?difi?kei??n]  
n.修改,修饰  
?
Genetic modification plays a key role in body growth.  
97 Non-American  
n. 非美国人  
?
Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.  
98 Condition [k?n?di??n]  
n.状况[ pl.]环境 vt.适应;调整状况;决定  
99Be conditioned by决定  
?
Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.  
100.Adulthood [?'d?lthud] n.成年  
?
Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood.  
300+  
32  
1 Garment [?gɑ:m?nt]n.(一件)衣服  
2 Reconsider [?ri:k?n'sid?]v.重新考虑, 再斟酌  
?
The garment industrywill reconsider the uniform size.  
3 Remain [ri?mein]vi.仍然是;留下;剩余 n.[ pl.]剩余物  
4 Unchanged [?n?t?eind?d]a.不变的;依然如故的  
?
The design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.  
5 Genetic testing 基因测试  
6 Employ [im?pl?i]vt.雇用;用,使用,利用 n.受雇,雇佣  
7 Select [si?lekt]vt.选择,挑选 a.精选的;优等的  
?
Genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.  
8 Existing [ig'zisti?]adj.现存的, 现有的  
9 Applicable [??plik?b?l]a.可应用(实施)的;适当的,合适的  
?
?
The existing data of human height  
will still be applicable.  
10Cyclic pattern 循环模式  
The change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.  
11 Predictable [pri?dikt?b?l]  
a.可预知的,平庸的  
?
Human height is becoming even more predictable.  
12 Alter [??:lt?]  
v.改变,改动,变更  
?
The genetic pattern of Americans has altered.  
13 Nearly [?ni?li]ad.几乎,差不多  
14Toothless ['tu:θlis]  
adj.没有牙齿的, 没有权威的  
?
In 1784, five years before he became president  
33  
of the United States, George Washington, 52, was nearly toothless.  
15 Transplant [tr?ns?plɑ:nt, -pl?nt]vt.移栽;移植;使迁移 n.(器官)移植  
16 Extract [ik?str?kt, ?ekstr?kt]vt.取出;提取;获得;摘录 n.摘录;提出物  
17 Slave [sleiv]n.奴隶,苦工 vi.苦干,拼命干  
?
So he hired a dentist to transplant nine teeth into his jaw  
having extracted them from the mouths of his slaves.  
18 Image [?imid?]n.形象,声誉;印象;像;形象的描述,比喻  
?
That‘s a far different image from the  
cherry-tree-chopping George most people remember from their history books.  
19 Historian [his?t?:ri?n]n.历史学家,史学工作者  
20 Focus on为焦点;集中于  
21 Founding generation 奠基的一代  
?
But recently, many historians have begun to focus on  
the roles slavery played in the lives of the founding generation.  
22 Spur [sp?:]  
n.刺激(),激励 vt.激励,鞭策,促进  
?
They have been spurred in part by DNAevidence made available in 1998,  
which almost certainly proved Thomas Jefferson  
had fathered at least one child with his slave Sally Hemings.  
23 Scholar [?sk?l?, ?skɑ-]n.学者;奖学金获得者  
24 Examine [ig?z?min]vt.检查,调查,仔细观察;对进行考查  
?
And only over the past 30 years have scholars examined  
history from the bottom up.  
25 From the bottom up  
adv. 从下到上  
26 Reveal [ri?vi:l]vt.揭露,泄露;展现,显示  
27 Compromise [?k?mpr?maiz]  
n.妥协,折中 vi.妥协 vt.危及,放弃(原则等)  
28 Fragile [?fr?d?ail]a.易碎的,脆的,易损坏的;虚弱的,脆弱的  
34  
29 Nature [?neit??]n.大自然;天性,性格;性质,类型  
30 Infancy [?inf?nsi]n.婴儿期;初期  
?
Works of several historians reveal the moral compromises  
made by the nation‘s early leaders  
and the fragile nature of the country‘s infancy.  
31 Significantly [sig'nif?k?ntli]  
adv.意味深长地, 意义深远地, 重要地, 较大地  
32 Slavery [?sleiv?ri]n.奴隶制;奴役  
33 Founding fathern. 开国者, 创立人  
?
More significantly, they argue that  
many of the Founding Fathers knew slavery was wrong  
and yet most did little to fight it.  
34 Hamper [?h?mp?]vt.妨碍,束缚,限制 n.(有盖的)大篮子  
?
More than anything, the historians say,  
the founders were hampered by the culture of their time.  
35 Privately [?praivitli