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新东方内部讲义【雅思】争7精品班写作_课堂讲义

雅思精品班写作讲义  
IELTS Copyright Reserved  
2009-9-24  
Task 1 (A)  
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Openings  
1. The graph(s) and chart(s) and table(s)  
, based on …( 调 查 研 究 ),  
illustrate/display/unfolds a clear picture of …(主要内容) in(地方/方面) between …  
and …(时间)  
2. As is reflected/revealed/shown/illustrated in the graphs, the number/percentages  
of …surged/subsided/fluctuated/differed dramatically/gently + 时间  
Eg.  
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2
3
4
. This bar chart displays the number of men and women enrolled in future education in  
Britain during three periods.  
. It is immediately apparent from the diagram that in 1970 the professions in Malaysia  
were almost totally dominated by men.  
. As is revealed in the diagram, the number of hours per week spent on unpaid work is  
unequally distributed between men and women.  
. A glance at four indicators of economic and social conditions in four countries, Canada,  
Japan, Peru and Netherlands, in 2001 reflects the great differences that exist between  
wealthier and poorer nations.  
时间的描述  
Patterns  
Examples  
In + 月份//年代  
In 1980s  
In the period between … and …  
During the first/second half of the year  
During the remainder of the year  
Over a ten year period/ over a decade  
Throughout the 19th century  
For/during + 时间段  
Over the period to …  
From…to…/between…and…  
At the end of the year/century  
Until…  
From 1980 onwards till…  
Before/after/around/about  
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Endings  
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?
From the diagram it can be safely concluded that_________.  
As a whole/In general/To sum up/In conclusion/In summary/In a nutshell, the data  
suggest that_______.  
?
What is worth mentioning is that____/noun.  
Example:  
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From the diagram it can be safely concluded that in the years 1978~1987 Florida  
developed much more rapidly than the United States as a whole.  
In general, the data suggest that the increased presence of women in the paid work  
force has yet to lead to an increased role for men in the home.  
What is worth mentioning is that nuclear power didn’t make its debut until 1998.  
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Body  
1
. In general/overall, the number of working females rose stably over this five-year  
period and, in particular, there was a significance increase between 1999 and 2000.  
. Canadian consumers expenditure fluctuated within a range of approximately 300,  
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3
4
5
6
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reaching a peak at 428 in 1980 and bottoming out at 125 in 1950.  
. There was a dramatic decrease in the number of marriages in Scotland in the decade  
between 1960 and 1970.  
. The number of marriages in Scotland witnessed a dramatic decrease in the decade  
between 1960 and 1970.  
. The decade between 1960 and 1970 saw a dramatic decrease in the number of  
marriages in Scotland.  
. The period between 1970 and 1985 witnessed a gentle decline within a range of  
approximately 100 couples.  
. The number of married people in Scotland surged and subsided evenly between 1970  
and 1995, averaging out at nearly 2,700.  
. The number of married people in Scotland fell sharply between 1960 and 1970 and  
continued to decline to the lowest point of 2,500 until around 1985, though at a slower  
rate. There was a gradual increase in the number of marriage which leveled off at  
approximately 2,700 in 1995.  
9. The older age groups watch around 2 more hours’ weekday television than the  
younger groups.  
10. The older age groups watch around twice as much weekday television as the younger  
groups.  
11. The viewing hours for older age groups outnumber/exceed/overtake/almost double  
those of the younger groups.  
12. Hamburgers are the most popular food of all because they account for the largest  
proportion of the pie chart.  
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3. Pizza is the second most popular, and this makes up 26 percent of the total survey.  
4. The least popular fast food is sushi as only 3 percent of teenagers prefer this kind of  
food.  
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1
5. Hamburgers dominate the total fast food expenditure of teenagers, at 33%.  
6. The spending on pizza ranked second, followed closely by that on French Fries and  
fried chicken, which accounted for 26%, 22% and 9% respectively.  
7. The remaining expenditure was channeled to tacos and sushi, with a total amount of  
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1
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10%.  
8. While the figures for the Western countries grew to about 15% in around 1990, the  
figure for Japan dipped to only 2.5% for much of this period, before rising to almost  
5% again at the present time.  
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9. From 1950 onwards, industrial use grew steadily to just over 1,000 km, while domestic  
use rose more slowly to only 300 km, both far below the levels of consumption by  
agriculture.  
20. A surged dramatically throughout the century, reaching a peak at in 1990 and  
bottoming out atin 1998. This is the similar case with the trend of total.  
21. Although A started higher than B, it lost that lead when both dipped in the middle of the  
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period.  
22. In spite of performing better than A, B lost this advantage at the end of the decade.  
23. Both A and B dipped, with A dropping to lower level than B.  
24. A fell from early high point to equal B, and both then remained level at the end of the  
period.  
25. While A gradually fell back, with a slight recovery in 1998, B generally maintained a  
higher level than A.  
26. Although there was little movement in A as a whole, B followed an upward trend,  
peaking at the end of the year.  
INCREASE  
increase  
DECREASE  
decrease  
STABILIZATION  
Funk  
word  
stay—  
Rise  
Fall  
stable/steady/  
constant/the  
same  
Grow  
Climb  
Soar  
drop  
decline  
slump  
lessen  
Ebb  
Medium  
word  
stabilize  
mount  
escalate  
boost  
Swell  
remain plane  
stay unvarying  
keep balanced  
even out  
curtail  
shrink  
subside  
plumme  
t
Favorabl surge  
reach  
a
e
rocket  
plateau  
word  
accrue  
Leap  
abate  
Dip  
level off/out  
FLUCTUATION  
Phrase  
Illustration  
It fluctuated  
1.  
2.  
3.  
from…to…/during…and…  
用于任意两个无特征性数字  
within a (large/small) range of…  
用于两个差值为十、百、千的整数  
…, reaching a peak at (statistics) in 第一种方法的复杂版,通过表示伴随状  
(
year) and bottoming out at (statistics) 况的从句揭示最高最低点  
in (year)  
4.  
2+3  
此句为小作文的必备句,每次都会用到  
1950  
1980  
Canadian Consumer’s Expenditure  
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?
Extent  
Words  
Illustration  
Sample sentence  
程度大, considerably  
斜 率 大 dramatically  
1  
sharply=steeply  
tremendously  
rapidly  
substantially  
程度小, Slightly  
斜 率 小 gently  
It rises gently=There is a  
gentle increase in the number  
of …  
1  
slowly  
steadily  
subtly  
三根或以上曲线中程度最小  
程 度 中 moderately  
It rises moderately=There is a  
medium growth in the number  
of…=The number of…is in  
moderation.  
等,接近 in moderation  
1  
medium(adj.)  
比较地  
comparatively  
relatively  
A B  
B
线 须 说 成 It rises  
comparatively gently, 于  
A 线 It rises sharply.  
平滑地  
大约地  
gradually  
A
B
A: It rises gradually  
B: It rises gently  
regularly  
continuously  
progressively  
smoothly  
Some  
almost  
About 少用  
around  
well nigh  
roughly  
nearly  
approximately  
分别地  
相应地  
Respectively  
The numbers of students in  
UK and Japan are 2100 and  
2155 respectively  
correspondingly  
proportionately  
A
B
B: It leveled off initially and  
surged correspondingly. 示  
某部分的变化趋势与另外一根  
一样。  
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均匀地  
Evenly  
对于这样的曲线确实很难讲清  
楚,但是我们发现曲线的起点  
和终点较接近,可说成 It rises  
and falls evenly.表示不管怎么  
变化,涨幅和跌幅相同  
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Phrase  
摸高  
探底  
平均值  
大起大落  
起落同幅  
reach a peak  
bottom out average out rise and fall surge and subside  
reach a summit  
hit a trough at  
sharply  
evenly  
表数量的词  
Amount  
Amount/quantity + <U>  
Eg. The amount of production  
Number + <C>  
Quantity  
Number  
Eg. The number of cars  
Figure  
While the number of internet users was 2.6 million in 1990, this figure  
has more than doubled in the last two years.  
birth ~/unemployment ~ + increase  
the ~ of expenditure + rise  
Rate  
Level  
Proportion  
Percentage  
the ~ of A to B increase  
the ~ of women in workforce  
Length, distance, volume, size, area, weight, height, frequency, duration  
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的表达法  
Be  
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The number of the unemployed was 10% of the population.  
Make up  
Women made up a significant percentage of the workforce.  
Amount to  
Paper and cardboard amounted to 21% of the total household waste.  
Account for  
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?
?
Fossil fuel emissions accounted for the majority of the greenhouse gases.  
Something be shared by/be in the charge of/be due to  
Somebody cover/take up/occupy/be responsible for …  
并列  
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As to / as for/ with regard to/with respect to…/Turning to/regarding…  
递进  
In addition, the forecast is for water supply to continue to increase in the next three years.  
比较与对照  
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The charts show about a third of the male population was arrested in 1994, while only 9%  
of the female population was arrested.  
On the other hand, an energy gap that continues to widen is forecast, beginning in the late  
1
990s.  
类比  
Similarly, the number of West Indian immigrants increased more moderately between  
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1940 and 1960  
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举例  
Typically, they will sleep from 10 p.m. and be awoken at 1 a.m. to comfort their babies for  
a couple of hours.  
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趣味式说明  
Interestingly, when there are 3 or more children in the household, men are found to work  
even fewer hours around the house than before the appearance of the third child.  
Task 2  
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Grammar改错  
1.  
As many as 60% old people feel lonely at home, they have nobody to share with the  
glories of their good old days.  
2
.
.
Nowadays anyone who study at university need to learn how to use computer.  
The develop of personal computers effect on peoples lives because small  
3
businesses can easy afford them and this makes their work more efficiency.  
The money should be spent on improving school buildings and to help old people.  
There was a fourfold rise of Brazilian student enrolments from 1998 to 2000.  
4
.
.
5
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语法结构  
However, reaching the conclusion that change is inevitable is not the same as assuming  
thatchange is always for the better. Unfortunately, it is not always the case that new  
things are promoted because they have good impacts for the majority of people. A lot of  
innovations are made with the aim of making money for a few. This is because it is the rich  
and powerful people in our society who are able to impose changes (such as working  
conditions or property developments) that are in their own interests.  
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造句练习  
1
2
3
4
. History is of great use.  
. Security measures are useful.  
. Government can alleviate housing shortage.  
. Mobile phones bring us a lot of problems.  
?
句子重心  
1.  
On the farm, the goats grazed peacefully and were unaware of the approaching  
hunter.  
2.  
The goats grazed peacefully on the farm and were unaware of the approaching  
hunter.  
3.  
4.  
5.  
The goats were grazing peacefully on the farm, unaware of the approaching hunter.  
Grazing peacefully, the goats on the farm were unaware of the approaching hunter.  
As the goats grazed peacefully on the farm, they were unaware of the approaching  
hunter.  
?
句子精简  
1
. A student acquires knowledge mainly from the textbook and in class.  
. When he graduates from school he can do nothing.  
2
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3
4
5
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. Everything is different from what teachers told them.  
. He may be disappointed.  
. He may be frustrated.  
. He may be afraid to face the real world.  
. Our universities have turned out people of no use.  
?
练习  
1
.
.
.
The number of bachelors degree reached a peak at 43% in year 1996. And it was  
bottomed out at 33% in 2000.  
2
The number of those who possessed a master degree rose smoothly in the first  
period from 1991 to 1996. It only added 3 percent.  
3
Young people are the future of a country, and therefore indispensable to a nation. But  
the young people face some problems nowadays, and governments always overlook  
them.  
4.  
5.  
6.  
Nowadays, the world has become a global village. With the process of globalization,  
some languages of minority are dying out every year.  
A businessman would rush to a computer training class after he finishes a big deal.  
But at that time he needs a hot bath or a homemade cup of coffee.  
Traditions are the foundation of peoples life; even a little change will make them  
uncomfortable, especially old people.  
?
Broad topics for practice  
Career development  
Infrastructure  
Abstract  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Media  
Science and technology  
Maslow’s theory  
Hobby  
Ethic  
Globalization  
0. Comparison and contrast  
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Types of questions  
Type  
Question  
Structure  
Important points  
Discursive  
Opinion  
Agree or disagree  
Problem + causes  
+
solutions  
Advantages  
+
disadvantages  
?
Figure out the type of the following rubrics:  
International tourism is the biggest industry in the world. Unfortunately, it creates  
1.  
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tension rather than understanding between people from different cultures. To what  
extent do you agree or disagree?  
2.  
Some people think that old buildings should be destroyed and make room for new  
ones. Is it important to preserve them? Should they stand in the way of the progress  
of new buildings? Give your own opinion.  
3.  
4.  
5.  
Motorized flight is the greatest invention in the modern world. No other invention has  
had a more significant impact on our lives. Do you agree or disagree?  
In most parts of the world, the volume of traffic is growing at an alarming rate. Discuss  
the main traffic problems in your country, their causes and possible solutions.  
With the increasing popularity of computers and calculators, student literacy is  
decreasing dramatically. What are the positive and negative effects the progress of  
science and technology has brought about?  
?
审题练习  
1. When a country develops its technology, the traditional skills and ways of life die out. It  
is pointless to try and keep them alive. Do you agree or disagree?  
2
3
4
. In many countries children are engaged in some kind of paid work. Some people  
regard this as completely wrong, while others consider it as valuable work experience,  
important for learning and taking responsibility. Discuss.  
. It is generally accepted that families are not as close as they used to be. Give some  
reasons why this change has happened and suggest how families could be brought  
closer together.  
. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following 3 means of  
communication and say which one is the most effective way to provide information.  
What I have lived for  
Bertrand Russell  
Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for  
love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These  
passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a  
great ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair.  
I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy - ecstasy so great that I would often  
have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because  
it relieves loneliness--that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks  
over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it finally,  
because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of  
the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might  
seem too good for human life, this is what--at last--I have found.  
With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of  
men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the  
Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not  
much, I have achieved.  
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Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But  
always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart.  
Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people a burden to their  
sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what  
human life should be. I long to alleviate this evil, but I cannot, and I too suffer.  
This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the  
chance were offered me.  
?
Openings and endings  
Opening:  
?
?
?
说明现状  
1
2
3
4
. It is a fact of life that…  
. It has been widely noted that…  
. There is a growing tendency nowadays for some people to …  
. …has been brought to spotlight recently.  
表明问题  
1
2
3
. This raises serious doubts about…  
. Some maintain…, whereas others are convinced that…  
. Diverse contributing factors can be identified, among which, A, B and C  
are predominant.  
作者观点  
1
2
3
. Here I will discuss the issue in the following.  
. Personally, I am convinced that…  
. I share the latter point of view for the following reasons.  
?
?
In that A, B and C  
As a result of A, B and C  
4
. Here I will discuss the pros and cons of the issue.  
. On the one hand, it brings us benefits in A and B; while on the other hand,  
its dangers lie in C and D.  
5
Opening:  
?
The progression of science and technology is inevitable and undeniable. What is  
under controversy is whether scientists are capable of managing the difficulties  
and uncertainties of science. To be frank, I am in high favour of the possibility of  
their disability in getting them over.  
?
There is much discussion nowadays as to whether or not the relationship  
between family members is as close as before. Diverse contributing factors can be  
identified. In the following, I would like to present my point of view.  
?
It is a fact of life that the development of science and technology has been  
accompanied by a decline in traditional culture. In my opinion, this is not  
necessarily a bad thing, because some aspects of traditional culture hamper  
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progress and should be abandoned. Moreover, it is natural that people should want  
to find new ways of doing things.  
?
It is an undeniable fact that scientific and technological developments bring great  
benefits to people. Especially since the Industrial Revolution took place, our lives  
have been made much more convenient by inventions such as trains, airplanes and  
computers. But I think that the loss of traditional culture is too high a price to pay  
for this.  
?
It has been widely noted that, with the popularity of computers and calculators  
both in the classroom and in the room, the level of literacy and mathematical ability  
of students is deteriorating. This raises serious doubts about the value of the  
progress of science and technology. Here I will discuss the pros and cons of this  
question.  
?
There is dispute over when the task of the shaping of a person’s character, or  
natural disposition, is fulfilled. Some maintain that it is concluded in one’s childhood,  
whereas others are confident that it is accomplished when one has completed  
one’s school studies or has had one year of working experience. For my part, I  
share the latter point of view, and I will give two major reasons why this is so:  
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?
There is a growing tendency nowadays for some people to treat animals as living  
meat and walking fur. This leads to the cruel slaughter of animals all over the world  
every year. Yet, in my opinion, instead of killing animals, human being should treat  
them as their friends.  
The economic and social gaps between the developed countries and the  
developing countries are becoming wider and wider in the past decades. It is  
frequently debated in the international forums whether the wealthy countries  
should give financial help to the developing countries. In my personal opinion, the  
former not only ought to provide, but also should increase the aid to the latter.  
Ending  
?
?
?
All in all, there are so many problems existing for scientists to get over that they by  
no means can manage them all temporarily. However, human beings will come to  
a new era through solving the problems one after another.  
Therefore, for the above reasons, I think highly of the effects of science and  
technology, the development of which is welcome. At the same time, they have  
eliminated the bad parts of traditional culture while preserving the good parts.  
Since there are many different kinds of music in the world, we should adhere to  
one Chinese proverb, “Let all the flowers blossom”. So when you feel the hope  
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is gone, look inside your heart. Then you will feel the hero lies in you, which is  
the music.  
?
In a word, in modern society overwork is stealing our leisure time. However, I  
believe this problem will be settled eventually with the development of science  
and development.  
?
We can conclude that the progress of science and technology has both positive  
and negative effects. What we must do is make sure that the positive ones are  
encouraged and the negative ones are eliminated as far as possible. Among  
other things, this means that students are warned not to let computers and  
calculators do all their work for them.  
?
?
To sum up, the reasons for the rise of the juvenile delinquency rate are many. I  
have simply pointed out some of the more obvious ones. Nevertheless, it is  
certain that if the whole of society pays more attention to the sound growth of  
teenagers and the other youngsters, the juvenile crime rate in urban areas will  
undoubtedly be rapidly brought down and controlled.  
Fast food started out as an expedient to cater for those who can’t afford the time to  
cook or the expense of traditional food. Now it has become part of our life. Like it  
or not, it is here to stay. On the other hand, traditional food is an inalienable part  
of our culture, which we can’t afford to give up. So, all in all, the co-existence of  
the two kinds of foods only makes our life more colorful.  
?
?
Of course, nuclear power, like other scientific developments, may cause some  
problems. But I believe that, with careful regulation and control, the advantages  
will far outweigh the disadvantages.  
It is inevitable that technology will progress and become increasingly complex. We  
should, however, ensure that we are still in a position where we are able to  
control technology. It will be all easy to suddenly discover that technology is  
controlling us. By then it might be too late. I believe that it is very important to be  
suspicious of the benefits that computers will bring and to make sure that we never  
become totally dependent on a completely technological world.  
?
Writing skills  
a)  
b)  
c)  
Because, for, since, as …  
So …  
Depend/rely on  
Account for/ be responsible for  
Contribute to /lead to / result in  
Bring about/cause/engender/give rise to/induce/mean/trigger  
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Be ascribed to/be attributed to  
As a result, thus, hence, therefore, consequently  
According to/due to/lie in/Be based on/be guided by/In the sense of/through  
Evolve from/come from  
d)  
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