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英语历年真题长难句300句

新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
1
. There is “the democratizing uniformity of dress and discourse,and the casualness and absence of deference”  
characteristic of popular culture.  
译文】 (美国社会出现)“服饰和话语趋于平民化的一致,随意和尊重的缺失”,这样正是通俗文化的  
特点。  
析句】 注意句子的表语是引号中的句子成分,表语实际是三个内容:the democrat-izing uniformity,the  
casualness absence of deference。形容词短语(characteristic of popular culture)是表语的后置定语。对此  
句的理解在很大程度上取决于对单词的理解。  
讲词】 democratize 意为“民主化”,本句中意为“平民化”。  
uniformity 意为“相同,一致”。Since then,the nation has sought uniformity in education to expand opportunities  
to all students.(自那时起,国家就致力于向所有的学生提供相同的教育机会。)This procedure has produced  
gratifying results in achieving uniformity in recommendations and decisions.(这一程序统一了建议和决定,效  
果令人满意。)  
discourse 表示书面和口头的表达,因此一般译成“话语”,语言学的说法是“语篇”。  
casualness 表示随意的态度、举止、穿着等。  
deference 意为“顺从,尊重”。In deference to my friend and colleague Dr. B-rundtland,I won ?t show those slides  
at this symposium.(为了以示对我的朋友和同事布伦特兰博士的尊重,我就不在这次研讨会上播放那些幻灯  
片。)Out of deference to Grandma,the father neglected to tell her that he had become a Christian. 为对尊重奶奶,  
父亲没有告诉她自己已经信了基督教。)  
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. Rodriguez notes that children in remote villages around the world are f-ans of superstars like Arnold  
Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks,yetsome Americans fear that immigrants living within the United States  
remain somehow immun-e to the nation ?s assimilative power.”  
译文】 罗德里古兹指出,尽管世界边远乡村的孩子崇拜阿诺德·施瓦辛格和加斯·布鲁克斯,然而“有  
些美国人却担心生活在美国的移民不知何故不受这个国家同化力量的影响。”  
析句】 这是一个复合句,yet 在句中起转折作用。  
讲词】 note 意为“注意,记录,作笔记”,作动词表示口头或书面表达他所注意到的事件或观点,因而有时  
可以译成“指出,写到,注意到,说”等。He noted that many issues had been discussed at the conference.(他  
说会上讨论了许多议题。)  
immune 意为“免疫的;免除的;豁免的”。The criminal was told he would be im-mune from punishment if he  
helped the police. 罪犯被告知,如果他协助警方就可以免受惩罚。)Small businesses started by the unemployed  
urban dwellers are immun-e from taxes for a certain period of time.(城市失业人员经营小本生意在一定时间里  
可以享受免税待遇。)The operation of the company will be immune to any outsid-e interference.(公司的运营不  
会受外界的干扰。)  
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. Are there divisive issues and pockets of seething anger in America? Ind-eed. It is big enough to have a bit of  
everything. But particularly when view-ed against America ?s turbulent past,today ?s social indices hardly  
suggest a dark and deteriorating social environment.  
译文】 美国是否存在分裂社会的问题和极度愤怒的群体?确实存在。美国太大了,什么都会存在。但是,  
尤其是与美国动荡的过去相比,今天的社会指数根本就不说明存在着黑暗和恶化的社会环境。  
析句】 此句的难点在于对一些词语的理解。a bit of everything 是一种口语化的表达,意为“什么都有一  
点”。  
讲词】 divisive 意为“区分的,分裂的”,divisive issues 意为“分裂社会的问题”。  
pocket 除了“口袋”之意,还可以表示“孤立的地区,保护区:被隔离的或被保护的小地区或集团”,在句  
1
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中应该理解为“社会群体”。  
seething 意为“火热的,沸腾的”,例如:a seething revolutionary struggle(火热的革命斗争),a seething flood  
(滚滚的洪水)。seething anger 意为“极度的愤怒”。  
to be viewed against 意为“对着……观察;与……相比;鉴于”。Viewed against his family background,he must  
have worked hard to become what he is today.(鉴于他的家庭背景,他一定非常努力才有了今日的成就。)  
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. And there are the townsfolk who largely live off the tou ?rists who come,no-t to see the plays,but to look at  
Anne Hathaway ?s Cottage,Shakespeare ?s bi-rthplace and the other sights.  
译文】 另一边是靠游客谋生的市民,游客来到小镇不是为了看戏,而是想看看安妮·海瑟薇的房舍、莎  
士比亚的出生地和其他的风景点。  
析句】 定语从句(who largely live off the tourists)修饰the townsfolk,而该定语从句的宾语the tourists  
的后面又跟了另一个定语从句。注意,不能把not to see the plays 的主语看作是the townsfolk。  
讲词】 largely 意为“在很大程度上,主要地”。He owed his success largely to th-e support of his wife.(他  
的成功在很大程度上应归于妻子的支持。)  
live off 有两个意思,分别是“住在……外”或“靠……生活”。The family used to li-ve off the small pocket of  
land they owned. 这家人过去靠着自家的一小块土地过日子。)Some college students have chosen to live off the  
campus.(有些学生选择住在校外。)  
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. It is all deliciously ironic when you consider that Shakespeare,who earns t-heir living,was himself an actor (with  
a beard) and did his share of noise making.  
译文】 他们是靠莎士比亚过日子,而莎士比亚自己就是一位演员(留着胡子),当初也是吵吵嚷嚷的,  
想到这些不无讽刺的意味。  
析句】 这是一个主从复合句,主句是It ?s all deliciously ironic。另外,非限制性定语从句who earns their  
living 修饰Shakespeare,其字面意思是:莎士比亚挣钱养活他们,即他们靠莎士比亚过日子。  
讲词】 ironic 意为“讽刺的,说反话的;有讽刺意味的”。Ironically,even the government was aware of the  
situation.(具有讽刺意味的是,甚至连政府都清楚这一情况。)  
share 作名词时表示“分享;份额;一份;股份”,句中did his share of noise ? making 字面意思是他也制造  
他那一份噪音,即莎士比亚当初也是吵吵嚷嚷的,像现在的演员一样。  
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. The sightseers who come by busand often take in Warwick Castle and Blenheim Palace on the sidedont  
usually see the plays,and some of them are even surprised to find a theatre in Stratford.  
译文】 坐着大巴来的观光客,虽然经常顺便看看沃尔威克城堡和布伦海姆宫,一般都不是来看戏,其中  
有些人看到斯特拉福德竟然一家剧院甚至惊讶不已。  
析句】 全句是由两个分句组成,在第一个句子的主干结构是The sightseersdont usually see the plays。  
定语从句(who come by bus)是修饰主语The sightseers,而破折号中间的成分是对定语从句的补充。some of  
them are even surprised to find atheatre in Stratford 是第二个分句。  
讲词】take in 的词义较多,可以表示“接受,接待,吸收,理解,包括,轻信,注意到,欺骗”,在句中的意思是“游  
览,观光”。  
on the side 意为“兼职;另外”。He did some accounting on the side.(他还人帮人做会计。)  
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. It is the playgoers,the RSC contends,who bring in much of the towns revenue because they spend the  
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
night(some of them four or five nights) pouring cash into the hotels and restaurants.  
译文】 皇家莎士比亚戏剧公司说,游客给小镇带来了很大一部分收入,因为他们过夜(有些人甚至住上  
四五夜),把大把的钱花在旅馆和餐馆。  
析句】 这是一个因果复合句。主句的正常语序是The RSC contends it is the playgoers…。从句(who bring  
in much of the town ?s revenue)是the playgoers 的定语。  
讲词】 contend 意为“竞争;奋争;主张;声明”。The defense contended that the evidence was inadmissible.  
被告方声称证据是不可接受的。)I had to contend with long lines before I could get a taxi at the airport.(我在  
机场必须排着长队才上了一出租车。)Hilary Clinton may contend in the 2008 presidential race against a  
Republican.(希拉里·克里顿会在2008 年的总统选举中与一位共和党人一争高下。)  
bring in 意为“引进;带来;生产”。How much did the sideline bring the farmer family in last year?(去年副业  
使这家农户增加了多少收入?The sale brought us in over $1000.(那笔买卖使我们赚了一千多美元。)  
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. Hilton is building its own hotel there,which you may be sure will be decorated with Hamlet Hamburger Bars,the  
Lear Lounge,the Banquo Banqueting Room,and so forth,and will be very expensive.  
译文】 希尔顿正在那里建造自己的饭店,你可以肯定饭店会装修哈姆莱特汉堡吧、李尔王厅、班戈宴会  
厅等等之类,而且消费水平会非常高。  
析句】 全句的主干结构是Hilton is building its own hotel therewhich 引导的非限制性定语从句包含两个  
并列的谓语成分以修饰its own hotel,其中you may be sure 是插入语。注意Hamlet Hamburger Bars,the Lear  
Lounge,the Banquo Banqueting Room, and so forth,希尔顿饭店肯定会在店内以哈姆莱特、李尔王和班戈等来  
命名其酒吧、大厅和餐厅等。  
讲词】 expensive 在句中是修饰希尔顿,即Hilton is very expensive,意思是指希尔顿的消费水平很高。再  
如:Tokyo is expensive 不能译“东京很贵”,而应该译成“东京的消费(水平)很高。”  
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. They all seem to look alike(though they come from all over)lean,pointed, dedicated faces,wearing jeans and  
sandals,eating their buns and bedding down for the night on the flagstones outside the theatre to buy the 20 seats  
and 80 standing ?room tickets held for the sleepers and sold to them when the box office opens at 1030 a.m.  
译文】 他们长相一样(尽管他们来自四面八方)——瘦削、专注的面孔,穿着牛仔服和凉鞋,啃着面包,  
在剧院外的石板台阶上席地而卧,等着购买 20 张坐票和 80 张站票,这些戏票是剧院会为席地而卧的人预  
备,并在早晨1030 向他们出售。  
析句】 句子的主干结构是They all seem to look alike,括号中的成分(though they come from all over)是  
插入的条件从句。破折号后面的成分是全句的状语,之所以用破折号是因为作者想对主语(they,即the young  
people)进一步加以说明。  
细分起来,状语分为两大部分:一是描绘他们的长相、穿着和吃住,二是说明他们的目的(购票)。前一部  
分包括四个方面的内容:一是(with) lean,pointed,dedicated faces,二是wearing jeans and sandals,三是eating  
their buns,四是bedding down for the night on the flagstones outside the theatre。  
而在目的状语中,when the box office opens at 1030 a.m.是一个时间状语从句,两个过去分词结构(held for  
the sleepers sold to them)修饰the 20 seats and 80 stand ?ingroom tickets。  
讲词】 pointed 意为“尖的,尖削的”,a pointed nose(尖鼻子),a pointed face(尖脸)。  
dedicated 意为“专注的,一心一意的”。He is a dedicated musician.(他是一富有献身精神的音乐家。)be  
dedicated todedicate oneself to dedicate ones life to 都有“献身于……”的意思。注意dedicate 还有“捐  
赠;献”的意思。Id like to dedicate the book to my parents.(我想把这本书献给我的父母。)  
3
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
1
0. Their methods do not attempt to estimate the actual biomass(the amount of living biological matter) of fish  
species in particular parts of the ocean,but rather changes in that biomass over time.  
译文】 他们的方法并不是要评估特定海域鱼种的实际生物量,而是评估在这一段时间内生物量的变化。  
析句】这是一个简单句,但是宾语是两个,一是the actual biomass(the amount of living biological matter) of  
fish species in particular parts of the ocean,一是changes in that biomass over time。  
讲词】 rather 意为“宁愿;有点,相当”。Id rather stay at home.(我宁愿呆在家里。)Hes rather lazy.  
他有些懒。)有时 rather 在句中表示转折,或者对前文进行纠正(经常与 or 连用)There are five,rather  
six,persons killed in the traffic accident.(在这场车祸中,共有5 人,应该是6 人死亡。)  
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1. According to their latest paper published in Nature,the biomass of large predators(animals that kill and eat  
other animals) in a new fishery is reduced on average by 80% within 15 years of the start of exploitation. In some  
long ?fished areas,it has halved again since then.  
译文】 根据他们在《自然》上发表的最新论文,在新渔场开始捕鱼的 15 年之内,大型捕食动物的生物  
量平均减少80%。在一些长期捕鱼的海域,生物量在此之后又减少了一半。  
析句】 句子的结构比较简单,但要注意数字的表述,而这正是考试的内容。在新渔场开始捕鱼的 15 年  
之内,大型捕食动物的生物量平均减少80%,而在此之后又减少了一半,即剩下的20%又减少了一半,因  
而应该只剩下10%了。  
讲词】 halve 意为“平分,分享,减半”。The companys profits halved after the demand in the market became  
low.(市场的需求减少之后,公司的赢利减少了一半。)  
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2. That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught,so the real difference between present and  
past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes.  
译文】 这意味着更高比例的海洋生物正在被捕杀,因此介于现在和过去这一段时间,海洋生物量的真正  
差别可能比捕获量所记录的变化更要糟糕。  
析句】 这是一个因果复合句,前半句是原因,后半句表示结果。而在表示原因的从句中,宾语较为复杂,  
of 后面跟了一个主句从句,其主句又是一个主语从句。what is in the sea 是一种婉转的说法,即海洋中的生  
物,或文中所说的生物量(biomass)。另外,注意 recorded by changes in catch sizes 是一个过去分词结构,  
修饰the one(即the actual biomass)。  
讲词】 catch 作名词时可以表示“捕获;捕鱼量”(what is caught),catch sizes 也是“捕获量”或“捕鱼  
量”的意思。  
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3. Some individuals would therefore not have been caught,since no baited hooks would have been available to  
trap them,leading to an underestimate of fish stocks in the past.  
译文】 有些鱼因此并没有被捕获,因为没有更多的带饵鱼钩来捕获它们,这就导致低估过去的鱼量。  
析句】 这是一个因果复合句,主句是Some individuals would therefore not have been caughtleading to an  
underestimate of fish stocks in the past 是作从句的状语。  
讲词】 available 意为“有用的,有空的”。These train tickets are available on the day of issue only.(火车票  
仅在发售当天才能买到。)有些人结了婚但与异性交往,英文就是married but available,有人简称之MBA。  
另有些单身但是已经名花(或草)有主,英文就是single but not available。  
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4. The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because  
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they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past.  
译文】 这种概念是,人们没有能够发觉海洋中所发生的巨大变化,因为他们只是关注了过去相对短暂的  
一段时间里所发生的情况。  
析句】 主句的宾语是一个从句,而从句是一个因果复合句。主句是people have failed to detect the massive  
changes which have happened in the ocean,从句是because they have been looking back only a relatively short  
time into the past。另外, which have happened in the ocean 是一个定语从句,修饰the massive changes。  
讲词】 detect 意为“察觉,发现,侦查,探测”。She was surprised to detect hatred behind his smile.(她觉察到  
他的笑容背后竟然藏着仇恨,因而为之吃惊不小。)The dentist could detect no sign of decay in her teeth.(牙  
医在她的牙齿上找不到蛀蚀的迹象。)The policeman detected the presence of the criminal in the hall.(警察感  
觉罪犯就在大厅里。)  
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5. That matters because theory suggests that the maximum sustainable yield that can be cropped from a fishery  
comes when the biomass of a target species is about 50% of its original levels.  
译文】 这一点很重要,因为理论表明,当目标鱼种的生物量大致降至最初水平的50%时,渔场才能收获  
最大的持续捕鱼量。  
析句】That matters 是全句的主干,后面是一个表示原因的从句,而从句又包含一个表示时间的状语从句。  
讲词】 yield 作动词时意为“生产,生长;屈从”,作名词表示“产量;收益”。The door yielded to a gentle  
push.(轻轻一推,门就开了)The child pleaded,but the parents wouldn ?t yield.(孩子苦苦哀求,但父母就  
是不让步。)This years yield from the coal mine was very large.(今年这煤矿产量甚丰。)  
crop 作名词意为“农作物;产量”,作动词表示“收获,收割”。注意crop up 有“突然出现;突然发生”的  
意思。A difficulty has cropped up at work.(工作中突然出现困难。)  
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6. Many things make people think artists are weird. But the weirdest may be this: artists ? only job is to explore  
emotions,and yet they choose to focus on the ones that feel bad.  
译文】许多事情让人们觉得艺术家是怪人,而最古怪的事情也许就是:艺术家的唯一工作就是探索情感,  
而他们所关注的却又是那些令人不快的情感。  
析句】 句子比较简单,应该关注explore focus 两个单词的意思。  
讲词】explore 有“考究;探索;探讨”的意思。Scientists have been known to explore in this region of the earth.  
科学家们一直在考察这一地域。)We must explore all the possibilities for the solution of the problem.(我们必  
须探讨解决这个问题的所有可能性。)  
focus 作名词表示“焦点”,作动词意为“重视;关注”。Because of his strange clothes,he immediately became the  
focus of attention when he entered the office.(他由于服装奇特,一走进办公室便成了大家注意的中心。)You  
must try to focus your mind on work and study.(你应该努力把思想集中在工作和学习上。)All eyes were focused  
on the speaker.(大家的目光都集中在发言人身上。)  
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7. But somewhere from the 19th century onward,more artists began seeing happiness as meaningless,phony  
or,worst of all,boring,as we went from Wordsworths Daffodils to Baudelaires Flowers of Evil.  
译文】 但是到了 19 世纪的某个时候,更多的艺术家开始觉得快乐是没有意义的,是虚假的,更是枯燥  
乏味的,从华兹华斯的《黄水仙》到波德莱尔的《恶之花》都是如此。  
析句】 句子的主干结构是 more artists began seeing happiness as…,as we went from Wordsworth ? s  
Daffodils to Baudelaires Flowers of Evil 作全句的状语。另外,句中的see 是“考虑,认为”的意思,相当  
consider。  
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讲词】somewhere 在句中意为sometime,即表示“某个时候”。另外,Wordsworth1770-1850)和Baudelaire  
1821-1867)分别是英国和法国的诗人。  
phony 也写作phoney,作名词“冒牌货,骗子”或形容词“假冒的,伪造的”。He is such a phony.他纯粹是个  
骗子。  
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8. The rise of anti ?happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass media,and with it,a commercial  
culture in which happiness is not just an ideal but an ideology.  
译文】 反快乐艺术几乎是随着大众传媒的出现而诞生,与此同时也产生了一种商业文化,不再把快乐当  
作一种理想,而是当作一种意识形态。  
析句】 此句是一个简单句,主干是The rise of anti-happy art almost exactly tracks the emergence of mass  
mediaa commercial culturewith it 中的it 是指 the emergence of mass media。另外,in which happiness is not  
just an ideal but an ideology 是一个定语从句,修饰a commercial culture。  
讲词】 track 作动词时表示“追踪,留下足迹,走”。An old wagon was tracking through the mountains.(一辆  
旧马车正在山区行走。)The accountant tracked the companys perfor mance daily.(会计每天跟踪把握公司的  
运营状况。)  
ideology 意为“意识形态”,或指某种思想体系和意识。  
1
9. In the West,before mass communication and literacy,the most powerful mass medium was the church,which  
reminded worshippers that their souls were in danger and that they would someday be meat for worms.  
译文】 在大众传媒出现和初级教育普及之前的西方,最强势的大众媒介是教会,它提醒信徒他们的灵魂  
处于危险之中,他们的身躯有朝一日会成为蛆虫的肉糜。  
析句】 句子的主干是the most powerful mass medium was the church,之前的成分是时间状语,之后which  
引导的从句是一个定语从句,修饰the church。而在定语从句中, worshippers 是间接宾语,两个that 引导  
的从句是两个直接宾语。  
讲词】 literacy 是指“读写能力”,因此建议译成“初级教育”。  
remind“提醒,使想起”。常用结构是remind sb. to do sth.(提醒某人做某事)和 remind sb. of sth.(让某人想  
起某事)。  
2
0. And since these messages have an agendato lure us to open our wallets they make the very idea of  
happiness seem unreliable.Celebrate! commanded the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex,before we found out  
it could increase the risk of heart attacks.  
译文】 由于这些信息暗含着一种诡计——诱使我们打开我们的钱包——它们就使得快乐的想法显得不大  
可靠。“欢庆吧!”治疗关节炎的药品 Celebrex 的广告一声令下,随后不久我们就发现这种药品可能会增加  
心脏病发作的危险。  
析句】 在第一句中,these messages 是指商业文化所传播的信息。第二句是复合句,主句倒装,正确的  
语序应该是the ads for the arthritis drug Celebrex commandedCelebrate!”倒装的语序以及command 的使用  
更加形象地传达了广告的强势,广告的信息以命令的方式传达给顾客,让他们没有思考的余地。【讲词】  
agenda 意为“议程”,但在有时可以表示“不可告人的计划(阴谋)”。The government has promised to put on  
its agenda the development of the village.(政府许诺把这个村庄的开发提到议程上来。)Some of the eighteenth  
?
century pessimists harbored an agenda for cultural control.(在18 世纪的悲观主义者中,有些人图谋控制文  
化。)  
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1
. But what we forgetwhat our economy depends on us forgetting -- is that happiness is more than pleasure  
without pain. The things that bring the greatest joy carry the greatest potential for loss and disappointment.  
译文】 但是我们忘记的是——我们的经济所依赖的就是遗忘——快乐远不是没有痛苦的喜悦。最有可能  
给我们带来最大快乐的东西也有可能会带来损失和失望。  
析句】 在第一句中,主语是一个主语从句,破折号中间的成分是插入语。在第二句中,主语(The things)  
后面跟了一个定语从句。  
讲词】potential 作形容词意为“潜在的,可能的”,作名词表示“潜能,潜力”。We have to be prepared for any  
potential difficulties.(我们应对潜在的困难做好准备。)The father detected soldier potential in the boy.(父亲觉  
察到孩子天生是块当兵的料。)  
2
. Today,surrounded by promises of easy happiness,we need art to tell us,as religion once did,Memento mori:  
remember that you will die,that everything ends,and that happiness comes not in denying this but in living with it.  
Its a message even more bitter than a clove cigarette,yet,somehow,a breath of fresh air.  
译文】 今天,周围到处都是轻易就能得到快乐的许诺,我们需要艺术来告诉我们死的象征意义,好比宗  
教曾经告诉我们的那样:记住,你会死的,一切终有结束的时候,快乐不在于否认这一点,而在于要接受  
这一点。这个信息虽说比丁香烟还要苦涩,然而不管怎样却也有一股清新的气味。  
析句】 主干结构是we need art to tell us,过去分词结构(surrounded by promises of easy happiness)作状  
语,注意Memento mori 是作直接宾语,而us 则是间接宾语。冒号后面的句子是Memento mori 的同位语。  
另外,as religion once did 作结果状语。  
讲词】 Memento mori 是拉丁语,意为“死的象征”。  
clove cigarette(丁香香烟)含有少量的丁香,味道芬香,具有一定的止痛作用。  
3
. The casino issued to him,as a good customer,aFun Card,which when used in the casino earns points for  
meals and drinks,and enables the casino to track the users gambling activities.  
译文】 赌场因他是一个好顾客而发给他一张“游乐卡”,此卡可以积分并享受免费的食品和饮料,并能  
使赌场跟踪使用者的赌博活动。  
析句】 此句是一个简单句,主干结构是The casino issued to him aFun Card”。as a good customer 是  
一个介宾短语,作him 的后置定语。aFun Card”后面跟了一个定语从句,而这个定语从句又是一个复合  
句,从句是when(it is) used in the casino,主句则有两个并列的谓语成分:一是earns points for meals and drinks,  
一是enables the casino to tract the users gambling activities。  
讲词】track 在此句中的意思同monitor 监视,记录)。The air controller in Perth tracked the aircrafts progress  
as it headed east across the desert. 在飞机朝东飞越沙漠时,珀斯的空中管制员跟踪到飞机的航线。)track down  
可以表示“追到,查到,找到”。After two days of almost nightmare,I tracked down the problem.(经过几乎是  
噩梦般的两天,我终于查到了问题的所在。)  
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. Now he is suing the casino,charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted.  
译文】 现在他正在起诉赌场,控告赌场既然知道他赌博上瘾就应该阻止他上船赌博。  
析句】 句子比较简单,但是应该掌握句中关键的单词。  
讲词】sue 意为“控告;请求;求婚”。He sued the department store for his personal injury he had suffered when  
he slipped on the floor inside the store.(他起诉了那家百货大楼,要求对其在店内滑倒所受到的人身伤害进行  
赔偿。)The enemy sued for peace after the battle.(敌人在战斗结束以后求和。)He sued for the hand of the girl  
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he loved.(他向自己所爱的姑娘求婚。)  
charge 也有“起诉”的意思,但是charge 还可以表示“指责”,不一定要正式起诉某人。  
patron 意为“赞助人,资助人;老顾客”。patronage 表示“保护,赞助,光顾”或“保护人的身份;老顾客  
的身份”。It seems our little establishment has finally been deemed worthy of the bank ?s patronage.(看来银行  
终于认为值得资助我们这种小机构。)Shopkeepers thanked Christmas shoppers for their patronage.(店老板感  
谢圣诞节顾客的光临。) addict 意为“上瘾的人;瘾君子”,a cigarette addict(烟民,烟鬼),a drug addict  
吸毒者)。addicted 意为“上瘾;着迷”,如表示对什么上瘾或着迷,后面要跟介词to。例如:He was addicted  
to drugs.(他吸毒上瘾。)  
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. Noting themedical/psychological nature of problem gambling behaviors,the letter said that before being  
readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that  
patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well ?being.  
译文】 鉴于其问题赌博行为的“医疗和心理”性质,信中表示在他出示医学和心理学证明以示光顾赌博  
不会对其安全和健康构成任何威胁之前,赌场不会再次对他开放。  
析句】 句子的主干是the letter saidNotinggambling behaviors 是现在分词短语作状语,宾语是一个that  
引导的从句。从句是一个复合句,主句是 he would have to present his safety or well ? being,从句是  
before(he is) being readmitted to the casino。  
讲词】 /在英语中表示“和”的意思。  
admit 在句中的意思是“接纳”。After two years in practice,he was admitted to the bar association.(从业两年以  
后,他加入了律师协会。)You will not be admitted to the auditorium without a ticket.(没有票是不会让你进礼  
堂的。)  
well ?being 表示“康乐,安宁,福利”,台湾人喜欢译成“福祉”。We should put the people first and give priority  
to the peoples well ?being.(我们应该把人民放在首位,以人民的安康为重。)  
6
. Every entrance ticket lists a toll ?free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health.  
Nevertheless, Williamss suit charges that the casino,knowing he washelplessly addicted to gambling,”  
intentionally worked tolure him toengage in conduct against his will”.  
译文】 每张入场券上都印有印第安纳心理健康中心的免费咨询电话号码。然而,威廉斯的诉讼指责赌场  
明知他“赌博成瘾不能自拔”,还故意设法“引诱”他“继续违反其意愿的行为”。  
析句】 第二句中charge 所跟的宾语从句主干为the casino worked tolure him to…。  
讲词】 toll 作名词主要表示“(钟、铃)声;征税;收费;伤亡”。The death toll from the train accident over  
the weekend passed 250.(在上周末的火车脱轨事故中死亡的人数超过了250。)toll ?free 意为“免费”,例  
如:Most big companies have toll ?free numbers.(多数大公司都有免费电话。)  
suit 作名词有“起诉,诉讼”意,等于law suit。  
work 在句中表示“设法”。All his life,he worked to help the poor rural women.(他一生都设法帮助那些贫穷  
的农村妇女。)  
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. The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders sayspathological gambling”  
involves persistent,recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of the thrill of taking risks in quest of a  
windfall.  
译文】 《精神错乱诊断与统计手册》第四版写道:“病态赌博”是一种持续反复并难以控制的行为,与  
其说是追求金钱,倒不如说是为了寻求冒险博取横财的刺激。  
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析句】句子的主干结构是The fourth editionsays,宾语是一个从句,其主语是“pathological gambling”,  
谓语是involves,宾语是一个lessthan…构成的比较结构,比较pursuit of moneypursuit of the thrill of  
taking risks in quest of a windfall。  
讲词】 pursuit 意为“追求”,pursuit of money 即表示“对金钱的追求”。  
to take risks(the risk) in doing sth 表示“冒险做某事”。The entrepreneurs took the risk in lending their mo ?ney  
and hoped that the business they invested in would succeed.(企业家冒险借出他们的钱,希望他们所投资的生  
意会成功。)  
quest 表示“追求;寻找”。The company is questing for improving its service.(公司正在追求改进服务。)The  
quest for truth has never been more important than it is now.(对真理的追求从来没有像现在这样重要。)  
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. Pushed by science,or what claims to be science,society is reclassifying what once were considered character  
flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.  
译文】 在科学或所谓的科学的驱动下,社会正对曾被视为性格缺陷或道德缺失的东西重新进行归类,认  
为是类似于身体残疾的性格失衡。  
析句】 句子的主干结构是society is reclassifying,宾语是whatmoral failings,后面的成分(as personality  
disorders akin to physical disabilities)是宾语补足语。被动分词结构(Pushed by science,or what claims to be  
science)作全句的状语。  
讲词】 flaws 意为“缺点;裂纹;瑕疵”,character flaws 指“性格缺陷”。 They share the character flaw of  
arrogance.(他们都有傲慢的缺点。)  
failings 意为“缺点,缺陷”。  
physical disability 意为“身体残疾或缺陷”,这里的physical 意为“身体的,生理的”。  
akin 意为“同类的,类似的”。I should teach my students that science is akin to common sense.(我要教导学生,  
让他们了解科学类似于常识。)The situation there is akin to that of the West before the rise of the ready to ?wear  
industry in the early 1900s.(这种情形与20 世纪初成衣工业出现前的西方相仿。)  
9
. It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems,often defining as addictions  
what earlier,sterner generations explained as weakness of will.  
译文】 令人担心的是,社会越发把行为问题当作是疾病来治疗,常把更为坚强的上几代人称之为意志薄  
弱的行为定义成上瘾。  
析句】 这是一个简单句,主干结构是It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral  
problems,其中it 作形式主语。often defining asweakness of will medicalizing 的伴随状语。注意more and  
more 在句中是副词,修饰medicalizing。  
讲词】 will 作名词时意为“意愿;意志”,will power 意为“意志力,自制力”。Where there is a will, there  
is a way.(有志者,事竟成。)The international community needs to demonstrate its political will to end hunger. 国  
际社会应该拿出根除饥饿的政治意志来。)When you have the will to win,you will find the skill to win.(你要是  
有赢的意志,就会获得赢的技巧。)  
will 作名词还可表示“遗愿;遗嘱”。Never yielding to Victorian conventions,Collins had insisted upon a simple  
funeral in his will.(考林斯一生都不愿迎合维多利亚时代的习俗,他在遗嘱中要求在他死后只举办一个简单的  
葬礼。)  
1
. Such behaviour is regarded as all too human,with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be  
capable of this finely developed sense of grievance.  
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译文】 这种行为被看作是“人之常情”,其潜在的假定是:其他动物不可能具有如此高度发达的埋怨意  
识。  
析句】 主句是Such behaviour is regarded asall too human”,介词短语with the underlying…作伴随状语,  
that 引导同位语从句解释前面的名词assumption。  
讲词】regard 作动词时通常表示“看作,尊重”。Accoun ?ting may be regarded as a process of communication  
in a very real sense.(会计也许可以被看作是真实的交流过程。)He is a highly regarded scholar in the academic  
circle.(他在学术界被视为一位德高望重的学者。)  
underlying 表示“潜在的,根本的”。Clearly,Lef ?tists have an underlying view of the difference between the  
civilizedandsavage races.(显然,左派人士对“文明”种族和“野蛮”种族的区别有一个基本的  
看法。)  
capable 表示“有能力”,如果与of 连用可以表示“有能力做某事”。That mobs capable of any crime.(这  
群暴徒什么犯法的事都能做出来。)  
human 意为“人类的,人性的,有同情心的”,在句中表示“有人性的”,all too human 意为“太具有人  
性的”,因而可以译为“人之常情”。  
2
. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta,Georgia,which has just been  
published in Nature,suggests that it is all too monkey,as well.  
译文】 但是由佐治亚州亚特兰大埃里莫大学的Sarah BrosnanFrans de Waal 进行的一项研究表明  
猴子也具有“猴之常情”,该成果刚在《自然》上发表。  
析句】 本句的主干是a studysuggests that,其中主语study 有两个定语:一个是介词结构by Sarah  
Brosnan and Frans de Waal,另一个是which 引导的非限定性定语从句。谓语动词suggests 后面的that 引导  
一个宾语从句。  
讲词】suggest 基本意思表示“建议”,所跟的从句常用虚拟语气。It was suggested that English should be  
the only language spoken in the European Parliament.(有人建议欧洲议会只使用英语。)在suggest 后面的从句  
中,英国人一般会用should+动词原形,而美国人只用动词原形。当然suggest 后面跟从句并不一定表示“建  
议”。I never suggested that anyone has lied or should lie. 我从没有表示过有人说过谎,或者应该说谎。)suggest  
还可以表示“暗示,唤起”。The arrangement of these pillars strongly suggests unity and support.(这些柱子的  
排列强烈暗示团结和支持。)His silence could only suggest disapproval.(他的沉默只能暗示反对。)另外,  
suggest 有“要求;提醒”的意思。Such a crime suggests punishment.(对这样一桩犯罪应该给予惩罚。)  
3
. However,when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what  
the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.  
译文】但是,当两个猴子被放在隔开但相邻的两个房间里,能够互相看见对方用石头换回来什么东西时,  
猴子的行为就会变得明显不同。  
析句】 本句是一个复合句,开始是when 引导的时间状语从句,其中包含so that 引导的目的状语从句,  
observe 后面又是what 引导的宾语从句;最后是主句their behavior become markedly different。  
讲词】so that 是一个连接词,在英语中十分常见,可以表示目的。How do you raise your children so that they  
will have healthy relationships?(你怎样培养孩子,以便使他们能够建立健康的个人关系呢?)  
markedly 意为“明显地,显著地”,其形容词形式为markedHe showed a marked lack of interest.(他表  
现出明显的兴趣不足。)  
1
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4
. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all,the other either tossed her  
own token at the researcher or out of the chamber,or refused to accept the slice of cucumber.  
译文】 如果一只猴子无需拿出代币就能够得到一颗葡萄,那么另外一只就会将代币掷向研究人员或者  
扔出房间外,或者拒绝接受那片黄瓜。  
析句】 本句是一个是由if 引导的条件状语从句,主句是the other slice of cucumber,其中包括三个并  
列的谓语成分,讲述了猴子的三种反应:一tossed her own token at the researcher,二(tossed her own token)  
out of the chamber,三refused to accept the slice of cucumber。  
讲词】 token 意为“表示,象征,记号,代币”。例如:Tears are queer tokens of happiness.(眼泪是快乐的一  
种奇怪的表示。)另外,as a token of in token of 表示“作为……的标志或象征”。We shook hands as a token  
of our friendship.(我们握手以表示我们的友谊。)by the same token 表示“基于同样的理由”。By the same  
token,our African friends are welcome to share with us their experiences and lessons relating to foreign direct  
investment attraction and the build out of economic and technological development zones.(同样,我们也愿意和  
非洲朋友们一起交流在吸引外资,建设经济技术开发区方面所取得的成功经验和失败教训。)  
5
. However,whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans,or whether it stems  
from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago,is,as yet,an unanswered question.  
译文】 但是,这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成,还是来自三千五百万前他们共  
同的祖先,这还是一个悬而未决的问题。  
析句】 本句的主语由whetheror whether(是……还是……)结构充当,两个 whether 各自引导一个  
主语从句,而且后一个从句的宾语(ancestor)后接一个定语从句。全句的谓语由系动词(is)+表语(an  
unanswered question)构成。as yet 是一个插入语,意思是“迄今为止”。  
讲词】 stem 作名词主要表示“茎(干)、词干、家系、干线”等。作动词时意为“滋生,阻止”。He put  
a huge effort into trying to stem the rebellion but to no effect.(他拼命想阻止叛乱,但是没有成功。)注意stem  
from 意为“出现”或“形成”。The Czech ?German declaration on mutual relations and their future development  
closed some of the controversial issues in Czech ?German relations stemming from the past. 捷克与德国关于相  
互关系及未来发展的声明结束了两国关系中的一些历史争端。)  
6
. Do you remember all those years when scientists argued that smoking would kill us but the doubters insisted that  
we didnt know for sure? That the evidence was inconclusive,the science uncertain? That the antismoking lobby  
was out to destroy our way of life and the government should stay out of the way?  
译文】 还记得科学家们宣扬吸烟会致人死亡,而那些怀疑者们却坚持认为我们无法对此得出定论的时候  
吗?还记得怀疑者们坚持认为缺乏决定性的证据,科学也不确定的时候吗?还记得怀疑者们坚持认为反对  
吸烟的游说是决心摧毁我们的生活方式,而政府应该置身事外的时候吗?  
析句】 这里有三个问句,第一个问句的结构比较明了,而后两个问句则省略了 Do you remember…  
insisted,只有两个由that 引导的宾语从句。注意英语中,常会省略并列结构中的相同成分。  
讲词】lobby 作名词时意为“大厅”,作动词时表示“游说”。The President lobbied the bill through Congress.  
总统游说国会通过这项提案。)作动词的lobby 其名词形式可以是lobbying(游说,院外活动),也可以是  
lobby。进行院外活动的人、进行疏通的人或说客,英文叫lobbyer lobbyistout to(do)“力图要……的”。  
7
. There are upsetting parallels today,as scientists in one wave after another try to awaken us to the growing threat  
of global warming.  
1
1
新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
译文】 科学家们一波接着一波,试图告诫我们要认清全球气候变暖正在带来日益严重的威胁,在此  
情形之下现在又出现了令人不安的类似事情。  
析句】 as 在句中是连接词,引导一个从句,说明在什么背景之下又出现了类似的事情。在这样的结  
构中,as 可以翻成“当(在)……时候”,或者适度对句子进行调整。不管怎样,应该清楚There are upsetting  
parallels today 是主句,是全句的核心。  
讲词】 parallel 可以作名词(平等,并列,相似物)、形容词(平行的,相同的,并联的)、动词(相应,  
平等)和副词(平行地,并列地)。There are few parallels between American football and European football.(美  
国足球和欧洲足球没有什么相似之处。)This book is about the parallel lives of two contemporaries.(这本书是  
关于两个同时代人的类似生活的。)  
awaken 除了“叫醒,唤醒”以外,还可以表示“认识到,意识到”。注意awaken 后面接介词toPeople  
must be awakened to the danger of chemical weapons.(一定要唤起人们认清化学武器的危险性。)Awakened to  
the situation he was in,he was at a loss what to do.(一下子认识到他的处境,他竟然不知所措了。)  
8
. The latest was a panel from the National Academy of Sciences,enlisted by the White House,to tell us that the  
Earths atmosphere is definitely warming and that the problem is largely man ?made.  
译文】 最近的行动是由白宫召集了一批来自国家科学院的专家,这些专家告诉我们地球气候确实在  
变暖,而这个问题主要是人为造成的。  
析句】 本句的主干是The latest was a panel,过去分词短语enlisted by the White House 作后置定语,  
修饰panel。另外,不定式短语to tell uspanel 的补语,而不定式短语后又接两个(间接)宾语从句,说  
明告诉了我们哪些情况。  
讲词】 panel 表示“面板;陪审团,(专门)小组。”a(the) panel of judges(评审小组)。Congress has  
appointed a panel to investigate the incident.(国会任命了一个专门小组来调查这一事件。)  
enlist 的基本意思为“征召;参军;谋取(支持、赞助等)”。According to the law,a young man should enlist  
when he is eighteen.(根据法律规定,年满十八岁必须应征入伍。)The President talked to some Congressional  
leaders,in an effort to enlist their support for the bill.(总统与一些国会的领袖谈了话,以争取他们支持这项议  
案。)  
9
. But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future,and it is critical that our nation and the  
world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences  
of present actions.  
译文】 但是科学确实为我们提供了涉及未来的最佳指导,关键是我们的国家和整个世界在做重大决  
策时,应该依据涉及人类现在的行为对未来产生的后果时科学所能作出的最佳判断。  
析句】 本句包含 and 连接的两个并列分句,其中第一个分句中的 does 表示强调;第二个分句中的  
it 是形式主语,critical 后面的that 从句是真正的主语。在第二个分句中,judgments 后面又跟了一个定语从  
句,以说明是什么样的judgements。注意it is critical 等于it is important,后面所跟的从句实际上是虚拟语气。  
讲词】 guide 可以作动词。Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding the dead on their return  
journey to the other world.(数千只灯笼慢慢向大海漂去,给死人返回阴间指明道路。)guide 的一个派生词  
guidance 也较常见,意为“指导”。He is now studying under the guidance of Professor Green.(他现在正在格  
林教授的指导下学习。)  
1
0. Just as on smoking,voices now come from many quarters insisting that the science about global warming is  
incomplete,that it ?s OK to keep pouring fumes into the air until we know for sure.  
1
2
新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
译文】 就同吸烟问题一样,来自许多领域的声音坚持认为有关全球变暖的科学研究还不完整,在我  
们确定此事之前向大气中继续排放废气是没问题的。  
析句】 本句的主干是voices now come from many quarters,现在分词短语insisting 作伴随状语,后面  
是两个以that 引导的宾语从句,其中第二个宾语从句还包含以 until 引导的时间状语从句。  
讲词】 quarters 表示“住处,角落”。from many quarters 等于from many placesliving quarters 表示“生  
活区”。  
for sure 意为“确定地,确切地”。I know for sure that he must have done something terrible. 我敢肯定他  
一定做了什么天大的坏事。)No one knows for sure what happened to Bill. (没有人确切知道比尔出了什么  
事。)  
1
1. This is a dangerous game: by the 100 percent of the evidence is in,it may be too late. With the risks obvious  
and growing,a prudent people would take out an insurance policy now.  
译文】 这是一个危险的游戏:等有了百分之百的证据,也许就太晚了。随着风险越来越明显并且越  
来越大,一个谨慎的民族现在应该准备一份保单了。  
析句】 by the 100 percent of the evidence is in 实际上的意思是by the time when the 100 percent of the  
evidence is in,即by the time when we have the 100 percent of the evidence。  
讲词】prudent careful 同义,反义词是imprudentIts prudent to take a thick coat in cold weather when  
you go out.(天气这么冷,还是谨慎一点,出门带上件厚外套。)  
take out 本意是“取出;弄走;消灭”。Im going to take out my money deposited in the bank.(我打算取  
出存在银行的钱。)它还可以表示“发泄;消灭”。Dont take your frustration out in such an aggressive manner.  
不要用这样一种攻击性的方式来发泄你的失意。)The combat pilots were ordered to take out the enemy  
position on the hill.(战斗机飞行员接到命令,要消灭敌人在山上所建的阵地。)  
1
2. Instead of a plan of action,they continue to press for more researcha classic case ofparalysis by analysis.  
译文】 他们没有出台行动计划,相反只是继续要求进行更多的研究——这是一个经典的“分析导致瘫  
痪”案例。  
析句】 instead of 表示否定,可以译为“相反”。破折号后面的部分不是解释前面的名词research,而是说  
明前面的句子。paralysis by analysis 的意思是“分析导致瘫痪”,即只作研究而结果却没有采取任何行动。  
讲词】 a plan of action 是固定搭配,表示“行动方案”。  
paralysis 表示“瘫痪,麻痹”。cerebral paralysis(脑瘫)。The trade dispute led to a paralysis of trade between the  
two countries. 贸易纠纷导致两国的贸易瘫痪。)注意paralysis 的动词形式是paralyzeThe city was paralyzed  
due to the demonstrations.(游行示威导致这个城市瘫痪。)  
case 意为“事例,病例,案例”。It is simply a case of honor.(这纯粹是一个荣誉问题。)in any case 表示“无  
论如何;总之”。Wife beating is not allowed in Islam in any case!(不管怎样,伊斯兰教不允许殴打妻子!)in case  
表示“如果发生;如果;以防万一”。You need to have the room cleaned in case your son might come back  
tomorrow.(你需要把那个房间打扫干净,以防你儿子明天回来。)in case of 意为“如果发生;万一”。In case  
of medical emergency,call me immediately.(一旦出现病情就立即给我打电话。)  
1
3. To serve as responsible stewards of the planet,we must press forward on deeper atmospheric and oceanic  
research.  
译文】 要想成为负责任的地球管理人员,我们必须加强对大气和海洋的深入研究。  
析句】 这里需要注意To serve as responsible stewards of the planet 是表示一种目的,这种表达不同于  
as responsible stewards of the planet,因为在作者看来我们还没有成为responsible stewards of the planet。  
1
3
新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
讲词】 steward 表示“服务人员”或“管理人员”。air stewards(乘组人员)。  
responsible 的基本用法是to be responsible for sth or sbIm responsible for the safety of the ship.(我对  
轮船的安全负责。)也可以修饰名词: a responsible position(要职)。  
press 作名词时可以表示“新闻界”或“出版社”。When the movie star arrives in Shanghai,he will meet the  
local press.(这位电影明星到达上海之后将会见当地记者。)the University Press(大学出版社)。press 当动  
词的基本意思是“压”。The mother pressed her child against her.(母亲紧紧搂住孩子。)Hard pressed by his  
debts,he committed suicide.(由于债台高筑,他自寻短见了。)如果想表达“时间紧迫”,可以说“Time is  
pressing”。press forward(或press ahead)表示“加紧某一项工作”。We must press forward with the plan.(我  
们必须加紧推进这一计划。)  
1
4. A century ago,Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our  
unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s,neurologists had switched to thinking of them as justmental  
noise”— the random byproducts of the neural ?repair work that goes on during sleep.  
译文】 一个世纪前,弗洛伊德完成了其革命性的理论,认为梦掩饰我们潜意识中的欲望和恐惧;到了  
0 世纪70 年代末期,神经病学家们转而认为梦只是“精神噪音”,即梦是睡眠时神经修复工作的一种随机  
副产品。  
2
析句】 本句以分号分为两部分,前一部分的主干是Freud formulated his revolutionary theory,宾语theory  
后接一个that 引导的同位语从句,说明theory 的内容;在第二部分中,代词them 指代dreams,破折号后面  
的部分进一步解释什么是 mental noise,而定语从句that goes on during sleep 修饰work。  
讲词】 formulate 在这里表示“制定,规划”,同义词有:device,make,frame, invent 等。formulate 较正式,  
使用时要注意场合。  
disguise hide 近义。The child could hardly disguise his interest in the book.(小孩难以掩饰对那本书的兴  
趣。)但是disguise 强调“掩盖,伪装”:a blessing in disguise(假意的祝福)。His repeated references to his  
dangerous hobbies were only a disguise to cover up his insecurity.(他不时提起他喜欢冒险的嗜好,充其量只是  
为了掩饰他的不安全感。)  
random 的一个流行的用法是表示“随机”:random selection(随机选择)。  
1
5. Now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the minds emotional thermostat,regulating moods while the  
brain isoff ?line.  
译文】 目前,研究人员猜测梦是大脑情感自动调节系统的组成部分,当大脑处于“掉线”状态时对  
情绪进行调整。  
析句】 suspect 后面是that 引导的宾语从句。逗号之后的现在分词短语 regulating moods…作定语,解  
thermostat 的意思,句末的while 引导一个时间状语从句。  
讲词】 suspect 意为“怀疑,不信任”,也可表示“猜想,认为”。“怀疑某人有……罪”应表达为suspect  
sb.of…。They suspect him of giving false evidence.(他们怀疑他提供伪证。)  
regulate 表示“调节,管制”:regulate the temperature of the room(调节房间的温度)。When the band came  
to town,the police had a hard time regulating the traffic.(乐队到了这个城市以后,警察为了管制交通着实忙乎  
了一阵。)  
off ?line 是计算机用语,意为“不在线,掉线”,其反义词是on ?line(online),意为“在线”。  
1
6. And one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but  
actually brought under conscious control,to help us sleep and feel better.  
1
4
新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
译文】 一名主要的权威人士说,这些异常强烈的精神活动不仅能被控制,而且事实上可以有意识地  
加以调节,以帮助我们睡得更好,感觉更好。  
析句】say 后面是that 引导的一个宾语从句,而从句的主语成分(these intensely powerful mental events)  
跟了两个并列的谓语成分,一个是can be not only harnessed,一个是but(can be) brought under conscious  
control,后面的不定式结构to help us sleep and feel better 作目的状语。  
讲词】 authority 如果是单数,通常表示“权威”。He is a noted authority on urban construction.(他是城  
市建设方面的著名权威人士。)如果 authority 用作复数,通常表示“权力机构”,与 government regime  
的意思差不多,但是需要注意这三个词的差别。  
harness 有“利用”的意思,在这一方面与make use oftap capitalize 的意思差不多。harness 可  
以表示“控制”。If you can harness your energy,you will accomplish a great deal.(如果你能控制你的精力,你  
将获得巨大成功。)  
1
7. Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before  
awakening,suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day.  
译文】 多数人似乎在入睡初期做更多不好的梦,而在快睡醒前会逐渐做开心一些的梦,这说明人们  
会在梦里排解白天的负面情绪。  
析句】 Most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night 是句子的主干,后面跟了两个现在  
分词结构progressing toward…和suggesting that …,都是作伴随状语,但是第一个现在分词结构的逻辑主语  
most people,而第二个的逻辑主语是suggesting 前面的所有句子成分。另外,在suggesting 的宾语从句中,  
过去分词结构 generated during the day 作后置定语,修饰前面的feelings。  
讲词】 progress 作动词表示“进展”。Our company cannot progress until we employ more people.(我们  
公司只有雇用更多的人才能发展。)  
generate 的意思是“产生,形成,生成”:computer ?generated imagery(计算机生成的图像)。When coal  
burns,it generates heat. 煤在燃烧时产生热量。)The situation generated widespread dissatisfaction with the peace  
process.(这种形势导致人们对和平进程普遍感到不满。)  
1
8. Because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we dont always think about the emotional significance  
of the days eventsuntil,it appears,we begin to dream.  
译文】 因为我们的意识为日常琐事所占据,所以我们不会总是考虑白天发生的事情对情绪的影响,  
直到我们开始做梦,这种影响似乎才出现。  
析句】本句是一个表示关系的复合句,Because 引导原因状语从句,主句是we dont always think about  
the emotional significance of the day ?s events。破折号后面的until 引导一个时间状语从句,其中it appears 是  
插入语。  
讲词】occupy 除了常见的意思“占领”以外,还表示“占用”。As I was full occupied with my own thinking,I  
did not hear the teacher calling my name. 我一门心思想着事,没有听到老师叫我的名字。)I was occupied with  
preparing for the postgraduate examinations.(我一门心思准备考研。)  
significance 意为“意义,含义,重要性”。It was not until the early 18th century that the significance of the  
event was generally realized.(直到18 世纪初,人们才普遍认识到这一事件的意义。)Proper methods are needed  
to determine the significance of these changes.(需要恰当的方式才能确定这些变化的重要性。)  
1
9. At the end of the day,theres probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us  
from slee ?ping orwe wake up in panic, Cartwright says.  
1
5
新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
译文】 卡特莱特说,说到底,只要梦不使我们无法睡眠或“从梦中惊醒”,就没有多少理由在意所做  
的梦。  
析句】 At the end of the day 在句中作状语。句子的主句theres probably little reason to pay attention to  
our dreams at all,后面的unless 引导条件状语从句,其中包含两个以or 连接的并列分句。  
讲词】 reason 是一个常用词,多用作名词,也可用作动词。Theres a great deal of reason in his advice.  
他的忠告极有道理。)有或没有理由去做什么事,都可以套用reason 来表达。You have no reason to treat him  
like that. 你没有理由那么对他。)reason 作动词表示“与……理论(讲道理),辩论,说服,推断”。He reasoned  
out a solution to the problem.(他经过推断,找出了解决问题的办法。)  
at the end of the day 意为“最终;说到底;归根结底”。At the end of the day,a leaders job is to get results.  
领导的职责说到底就是要拿出成绩来。)At the end of the day people will learn to be more tolerant of people  
who dont see the world the same way.(人们最终将学会更加宽容那些世界观与我们不尽相同的人。)  
2
0. In his latest book,Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why We Should  
Like,Care,John McWhorter,a linguist and controversialist of mixed liberal and conservative views,sees the triumph  
of 1960s counter ?culture as responsible for the decline of formal English.  
译文】在其近作《做我们自己的事:语言和音乐的退化及为什么我们应该喜欢或在意?》中,约翰·麦  
克沃特——一位语言学家,一个兼有自由主义和保守主义思想的争议人物——认为60 年代反文化运动的胜  
利应对正式英语的退化负责。  
析句】 该句子的主干是John McWhorter seesthe declinein his latest book 做状语,书名充当book  
的同位语。主语和谓语之间的成分是主语的同位语,说明约翰·麦克沃特的身份。本句的难点是对两个同  
位语的把握。  
讲词】 controversialist 意为“争论者,好争论者”或“引起争议的人”,controversy 意为“论争,辩论,  
争议”,controversial 意为“争论的,争议的”。  
see 在句中表示“考虑;认为”,seeas 意为“认为……是……”或“视……为……”。在2003 年考研  
试卷的第一篇阅读文章中,就有类似的句子: He sees the firms outsider status as the key to its success.(他  
把公司的“局外人”地位视为它成功的关键。)  
2
1. Mr. McWhorters academic specialty is language history and change,and he sees the gradual disappearance of  
whom,for example,to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case ?endings of Old English.  
译文】 麦克沃特先生的学术专长是语言史和语言变化。举例来说,他认为“whom”一词的逐渐消  
失是自然的,并不比古英语中词格尾缀的消失更让人惋惜。  
析句】本句是一个并列句,包含两个以and 连接的分句,其中第二个分句比较复杂:宾语是the gradual  
disappearance ofwhom,后面是插入语for example,紧跟着to be natural of Old English 作上述宾语的补  
足语句中的see 是“考虑,认为”(consider)的意思。  
讲词】 specialty 的意思有“专业,专长,特长,特制品”,饭店的“特色菜”也可用 specialty 表示。  
His specialty is biology,mine is physiology.(他的专业是生物学,我的专业是生理学。)Wood carving is a  
specialty of this village.(木雕是这个村子的特产。)  
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2. While even the modestly educated sought an elevated tone when they put pen to paper before the 1960s,even  
the most well regarded writing since then has sought to capture spoken English on the page.  
译文】在20 世纪60 年代以前,仅受过一般教育的人在下笔时都会寻求一种更高雅的腔调;在此之后,  
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即使是最受人关注的文章也开始逮住口语就写在纸面上。  
析句】句首的连词while 表示“虽然”,两个even 都表示让步,同时加强了前后两部分的对比;since then  
意思是“从那以后”,then 指的是the 1960s。本句的难点是对连词以及时间副词的理解。  
讲词】 to put pen to paper 等于write 的意思。to capture words on the page 也是写的意思。  
the modestly educated 指受过一般教育的人。如果是受过很好的教育,英文就说the well educated;如果  
没有受过多少的教育,英文就说the little educated。  
elevate 表示“提起,抬高,提拔”。Reading good books elevate one ?s mind.(阅读好书可提高人的心  
灵修养。)  
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3. As a linguist,he acknowledges that all varieties of human language, including non ?standard ones like Black  
English,can be powerfully expressivethere exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex  
ideas.  
译文】 作为语言学家,他承认所有的人类语言,包括像黑人语言这样的非标准语言,都具有强大的表  
达力——世上没有一种语言或方言无法传达复杂的思想。  
析句】 all varieties of human languages 等于all human languages。本句涉及语言学的一个基本理论,即所  
有的语言都能表达复杂的思想。句子的主干是 he acknowledges that all varieties can be expressive,谓语  
acknowledges 后面是that 引导的宾语从句。从句中主谓之间插入了介词短语including non ?standard ones like  
Black English。破折号后面分句对前面话语进行补充说明。  
讲词】 在英语中,acknowledgeadmitavow,confess concede 都有“承认”的意思。acknowledge 表  
示公开承担某事的责任。He acknowledged that the purchase had been a mistake.(他承认购买那东西是个错误之  
举。)acknowledge 还有“答谢”的意思。The author acknowledged the assistance of Professor Johnson in his  
research.(作者向约翰逊教授对其研究所给予的帮助表示感谢。)也可表示“公认”,常用被动语态。He is  
acknowledged the best player in the team.(他被公认为队中最好的球员。)  
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4. Russians have a deep love for their own language and carry large chunks of memorized poetry in their heads,  
while Italian politicians tend to elaborate speech that would seem old ?fashioned to most English ?speakers.  
译文】 俄罗斯人深爱自己的语言,并在脑海中存储了大量诗歌;而意大利的政客们往往精心准备演  
讲,即使这在大多数讲英语的人眼里已经过时。  
析句】句子本身并不难,它是一个由连接词while所组成的并列句。句子的难点可能是tend to elaborate  
speech that would seem old ?fashioned to most English ? speakersspeech 是指说话的方式,elaborate speech  
指说话比较繁琐,因此会让大多数讲英语的人听起来觉得 old ? fashioned。简言之,意大利的政治家说话  
太文乎,有咬文嚼字之嫌。  
讲词】 elaboratelabor 是同根词,它可以是形容词(表示“精心制作的,详细阐述的”),也可以是  
动词(表示“精心制作,详细阐述”)。After two weeks,they came up with an elaborate plan.(经过两个星期的准  
备,他们拿出了一份详细的计划。)There is no need for you to elaborate on the facts.(你没有必要详尽说明事  
实。)  
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5. Canada's premiers(the leaders of provincial governments),if they have any breath left after complaining about  
Ottawa at their late July annual meeting,might spare a moment to do something,to reduce health ?care costs.  
译文】 加拿大的省长们在 7 月底举行的年度会议上对渥太华抱怨了一通,如果他们还有力气的话,  
他们也许应该花点时间做点什么,以降低医疗费用。  
析句】这是一个条件复合句。从句是ifannual meeting,主句是Canadas premiers to do something,  
后面的to reduce health ?care costs 是目的状语。  
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讲词】 breath 在句中意为“精力”。to have any breath left 意为“还有力气或精力”。I don ?t have any  
breath to explain myself.(我没有精力为我自己解释。)Mrs. Hockin had scarcely any breath to tell us anything,as  
she came in through the door.(霍金夫人走进门以后几乎没有力气跟我们说话。)  
spare 作形容词表示“空余的;有用的”,如spare time(业余时间)。作动词时,可以表示“饶恕;安慰;  
使免除;节省”等。It is time for the President to spare himself the burden of leadership.(总统现在应该主动放弃  
领导国家的职责。)  
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6. Both the Romanow commission and the Kirby committee on health careto say nothing of reports from other  
expertsrecommended the creation of a national drug agency.  
译文】 不要说别的专家所提的报告,就连罗曼诺医疗委员会和科尔比医疗委员会都建议成立一个全  
国性的药品机构。  
析句】 这是一个简单句,但是句中有一个插入成分,即破折号中间的成分。插入语实际上表示一种  
让步条件。  
讲词】to say nothing of 意为“更不要说”。I think your written English is quite good,to say nothing of your  
oral English.(我认为你的英语写作水平很高,更不要说你的口语了。)Those doing business in China are often  
frustrated by the language difficulties,to say nothing of the cultural and business practice differences.(在中国做生  
意的人常常会因语言障碍而感到泄气,更不要说在文化和经营惯例方面的差别了。)  
creation 在句中是“成立,建立,创建”的意思。The creation of the fund was made possible by a generous  
donation from the business community.(得益于商界各位人士的慷慨相助,基金会才得以成立。)  
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7. Instead of each province having its own list of approved drugs,bureaucracy,procedures and limited bargaining  
power,all would pool resources,work with Ottawa,and create a national institution.  
译文】 与其各省自行制定药品采购清单,拥有自己的机构、程序和有限的议价能力,倒不如集中各自  
掌握的资源,与渥太华一道成立一个全国性的机构。  
析句】句子的主句是all would pool resources,work with Ottawa,and create a national institutioninstead of  
引导了一个介词短语,作全句的状语。instead of 意为“代替;宁愿”,如果直译句子肯定不通,因此在翻译  
时可对句子结构等进行适当的调整。  
讲词】 pool 在句中作动词,意为“汇聚;集中”。Lets pool our resources to finish the project quickly.  
让我们集合我们的资源以尽快完成这个项目。)在北美,人们为了节省汽油,上班时会 car pool,即拼车  
上班。  
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8. Basic economics suggests the greater the potential consumers,the higher the likelihood of a better price.  
译文】 基础经济学理论说明,潜在的消费者越多就越有可能争取更优惠的价格。  
析句】 这是一个简单句,但是由于用了不大常用的词 likelihood,句子显得有些费解。改写一下,可能  
意思更明了:Basic economics suggests that it is more likely to negotiate a better price with more potential  
consumers。  
讲词】 likelihood 意为“可能,可能性”。Do you think there is any likelihood of his agreeing to it?(=Do you  
think it is possible that he will agree to it?你认为他有同意此事的可能性吗?WHO,the world health organization,  
warns that the likelihood of a human flu epidemic is very high.(世界卫生组织警告说,爆发人流感的可能性非  
常高。)  
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9. A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency with the creation of the Canadian  
Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment,funded by Ottawa and the provinces.  
译文】 渥太华和一些省出资成立了加拿大医疗技术评估协作办公室,这意味着向成立全国性机构的  
目标迈出了一小步。  
析句】 这是一个简单句,句子的主干是A small step has been taken in the direction of a national agency。  
with the creationAssessment 是状语,过去分词短语(funded by Ottawa and the provinces)作定语,修饰the  
Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment。  
讲词】 assess 意为“估定,评定”,assessment 是其名词形式。Damages were assessed at 1,000 RMB.(损  
失估计达一千元人民币。)What is your assessment of the situation?(你对时局的看法如何?)  
fund 作名词时表示“资金,基金(会)”,作动词意为“资助,投资”。idle fund(游资),public welfare fund  
公益金),a relief fund(救济基金),a reserve fund(公积金),a scholarship fund(奖学金基金)。The project  
was abandoned for want of funds.(这个计划因为缺少资金而作罢。)The project funded by the government has  
eased the traffic problem in the city.(政府投资的项目缓解了城市的交通问题。)  
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0. Or they could read Mr. Kirbys report:the substantial buying power of such an agency would strengthen the  
public prescription ?drug insurance plans to negotiate the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies.”  
译文】 或许他们可以读一读科尔比先生的报告:“由于这样一个机构拥有实实在在的购买力,因而公共  
处方药保险计划就会得到加强,从而与制药公司展开谈判,以尽可能低的价格采购药品。”  
析句】 引号之内的成分可以视作为Mr. Kirbys report 的同位语。引号中的成分是一个单句,to negotiate  
the lowest possible purchase prices from drug companies 是其目的状语。由于引号中的主语(the substantial  
buying power of such an agency)太长,因此在译成汉语时应该考虑译成一个分句。  
讲词】 buying power 又叫purchasing power(购买力)。注意negotiate 的用法,to negotiate sth with sb。  
Mexico had unequal bargaining power when it negotiated the Treaty with the United States. 墨西哥在与美国缔结  
条约时没有平等的讨价还价权力。)You should negotiate a pay raise with your boss.(你应该与你的老板交涉,  
争取让他给你涨工资。)  
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1. According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information,prescription drug costs have risen since 1997 at  
twice the rate of overall health ?care spending. Part of the increase comes from drugs being used to replace other  
kinds of treatments. Part of it arises from new drugs costing more than older kinds. Part of it is higher prices.  
译文】 根据加拿大医疗信息研究所的报告,处方药的成本自1997 年以来持续上涨,其上涨幅度是整个  
医疗支出速度的两倍。部分原因是不断有新药取代旧的治疗手段,部分原因是新药比旧药贵,部分原因是  
价格高。  
析句】 句子并不复杂,但要注意英语中的倍数表达(twice the rate),以及如何解释原因。  
讲词】 twice 可以表达两倍。Greenland ice cap is breaking up at twice the rate it was five years ago.(格陵  
兰的冰冠正以5 年前两倍的速度融化。)  
arise from 意为“起于”。This case arose from a fire in a residential property in southern Delaware.(这一案  
件源于南特拉华州一处民宅的火灾。)The serious health problems arose from the Gulf War.(这一严重的健康  
问题起于海湾战争。)  
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2. So,if the provinces want to run the health ?care show,they should prove they can run it,starting with an  
interprovincial health list that would end duplication,save administrative costs,prevent one province from being  
played off against another,and bargain for better drug prices.  
译文】 所以说,如果各省都想自己掌管医疗事业,它们就应该证明自己能够管好,首先各省应当不再  
单独制定药品采购清单,而是协同制定一份统一的药品采购清单,节省管理成本,防止各省之间互相争斗,  
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并尽量争取压低药品的价格。  
析句】这是一个条件复合句,从句是if the provinces want to run the health ?care show,主句是they should  
prove they can run itstarting with an interprovincial health list 作句子的伴随状语,而an interprovincial health  
list 后面跟了一个定语从句。在定语从句中,谓语动词一共有四个(endsaveprevent bargain)。  
讲词】 run 在句中是“管理”的意思。Remember when George W. Bush said he run the country like a  
corporation?(记得乔治·W·布什曾说他管理国家会像管理公司一样吗?)The problem we have is that he has  
no idea how to run the company.(我们的问题是他不知如何管理公司。)  
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3. Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyedand perhaps never before  
has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe.  
译文】 电视是创造和传递感情的手段之一。也许在此之前,就加强不同的民族和国家之间的联系而言,  
电视还从来没有像在最近的欧洲事件中那样起过如此大的作用。  
析句】本句由两个并列句组成。第一分句包含一个定语从句,句子的主干为 television is one of the means。  
第二个分句是一个倒装句,直译不符合汉语习惯,因此应该适当进行调整。  
讲词】 serve 的意思比较多,可以表示“服务,服役,供职,招待,侍候,供应,适合”等。在球类比  
赛中,serve 有发球的意思。The political parties in this country should seek to serve the national interest.(这个  
国家的政党应该致力于为国家利益服务。)She served in the Navy for four years.(她在海军服役四年。)serve  
to 在英语中意为“起作用”。His visit to China may serve to strengthen the bilateral relations between the two  
countries.(他的到访也许会起到加强两国关系的作用。)  
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4. In Europe,as elsewhere,multi ?media groups have been increasingly successful groups which bring together  
television,radio,newspapers,magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.  
译文】多媒体集团在欧洲就像在其他地方一样越来越成功了。这些集团把相互关系密切的电视台、电台、  
报纸、杂志、出版社整合到了一起。  
析句】 本句包含一个定语从句。句子的主干为 multi ? media groups have been increasingly successful  
groups,后面跟着一个由which 引导的限制性定语从句,修饰 successful groups。而定语从句中又包含一个  
that 引导的定语从句,修饰television publishing houses 应该注意that 引导的定语从句所修饰的对象为  
前面整个名词短语,而不仅仅是publishing houses。  
讲词】 bring together 意为“聚集在一起”。This,my friends,is my idea about how we can bring together our  
Class again.(我的朋友们,这就是我如何把我们班同学召集在一起的设想。)bring 相关的词组很多,主要有:  
bring forward(提前,提出),bring in(获利;引进),bring out(推出,揭露),bring up(抚养,照料)。  
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5. This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in,a fact underlined by  
statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks,no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.  
译文】 仅这一点就表明电视行业不是一个容易生存的领域。这个事实通过统计数字一目了然,统计  
表明在80 家欧洲电视网中1989 年出现亏损的不少于50%。  
析句】 本句包含一个宾语从句。This alone demonstrates…是句子的主干,其宾语是由that 引导的宾  
语从句。a factin 1989 为同位语结构,其中包含一个that 引导的定语从句,修饰前面的statistics,在这个  
定语从句中又包含that 引导的宾语从句。  
讲词】survive 意为“生存,存在”。Few survived after the flood.(洪水后生还者极少。)The custom still  
survives. 这种风俗习惯还保存着。)survive 还可以表示“比……活得长”。He survived his wife for many years.  
他比妻子多活好多年。)  
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underline 意为“加下划线,说明,强调”。The ministers underlined the importance of the participation from  
business circle in APEC process.(部长们强调了商业界参与亚太经合组织活动的重要性。)  
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6. Creating aEuropean identity that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the  
connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice.  
译文】 不同文化和传统组成了连接欧洲大陆的纽带。创造一个尊重这些文化和传统的“欧洲统一认  
同”绝非易事,需要战略性选择。  
析句】本句的主干为Creating a European identity”…is no easy task and demands a strategic choice,that  
引导的限制性定语从句修饰前面的“European identity,在这个定语从句中又包含which 引导的限制性定语  
从句,修饰前面的 cultures and traditions,主语带有由连词and 连接的两个谓语动词“is no easy task”和  
demands a strategic choice,翻译本句时应注意定语从句的处理方法。  
讲词】 the Old Continent(或the Old World)指欧洲大陆,以区别于the New World(美洲)。  
fabric 意为“织品,织物,布;结构”。The whole fabric of society was changed by the revolution.(整个社会  
结构都被这场革命改变了。)  
identity 意为“认同”,政治、社会、历史、文化等学科的同学应该都清楚这个概念。national identity(国  
家认同),identity crisis(认同危机),cultural identity(文化认同)。  
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7. In dealing with a challenge on such a scale,it is no exaggeration to say,United we stand,divided we fall.  
译文】 应付一个如此规模的挑战时,我们可以毫不夸张地说,“团结,我们就会站起来;分裂,我们  
就会倒下去”。  
析句】 此句的结构比较简单,它是套用了美国总统肯尼迪的一句话:United,there is little we cannot do;  
divided,there is little we can do. 团结,我们无所不能;分裂,我们一事无成。)具体到此句中,uniteddivided  
两个过去分词实际上暗含两个条件,完整的句子应该是:If we are united,we stand. If we are divided,we fall.  
讲词】 scale 意为“刻度,比例,天平,范围,规模”。on a small scale 意为“小规模”,on a large(big) scale  
意为“大规模”。It is a large scale international effort with many participating countries and regions involved in this  
experiment.(这一试验是一次大规模的国际协作活动,许多国家和地区都参与了。)  
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8. Traditionally,legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers,rather than a  
necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.  
译文】 传统上,在加拿大的高等学府里,学习法律一直被看作是律师的专门工作,而不是一个受过  
良好教育的人所必须具备的知识素养。  
析句】主干结构是一个被动语句(legal learning has been viewed asrather than…),in such institutions  
作状语,从前文看是指Canadian universities。  
讲词】 institution 在句中表示 “机构”,如 higher education institutions(高等教育机构)。Institution  
词义较多,还可以表示“创立,设立;制定;风俗,习惯,制度”。Giving presents on Christmas is an institution.  
圣诞节送礼是一种风俗。)  
preserve 作动词表示“保存;保护”,如美国总统的誓词:I do solemnly swear that I will perform the duties  
of the President of the United States to the best of my ability and defend,protect and preserve the Constitution of  
the United States.(我谨庄严宣誓,我必竭尽全力执行合众国总统职务,恪守、维护和捍卫合众国宪法。)  
preserve 作名词时表示“蜜饯;禁区;保护物”。special preserve 意为“专门的工作”,如:She considers  
the arranging of flowers in the church to be her own preserve.(她认为在教堂中插花是她的专门工作。)  
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
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9. On the other,it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists  
forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.  
译文】 另一方面,法律又将这些观念与日常生活中的实际联系在一起,其方式就如同新闻工作者在  
报道和评论新闻事件时,以日常生活为基础一样。  
析句】 句子的主干是it links these concepts to everyday realitiesit 指“法律”。in a manner 作状语,  
which 引导一个较长的定语从句(which is parallelon the news)。这个定语从句的主干是which is parallel to  
the links,其中the links跟了一个定语从句journalists forge on a daily basis,状语从句as they cover and comment  
on the news 修饰动词forge。  
讲词】 reality 意为“现实;现实性”,everyday reality 意思是“日常生活中的实际情况”。reality 相关  
的词组:bring sb. back to reality(使某人面对现实,不再抱有幻想),in reality(事实上,其实),make sth. a reality  
实现某事,落实)。  
in a manner(of)in the manner that 表示“以……方式”。It is more important that his plays are produced in the  
manner that he intended.(应该以他设想的方式演绎他的剧本,这一点更为重要。)另外,记住一些常用的词  
组,如:in a manner of speaking(在某些方面;可以说),after a manner(马马虎虎地),after the manner of  
仿效),all manner of(各种各样的)in like manner(同样地),in such a manner(于是,如此),in this manner  
如此)。  
forge 表示“锻造,伪造;突然前进”,句中意为“使形成”。  
4
0. But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an  
understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.  
译文】 但是,新闻工作者对于法律的理解应该比普通公民更加深刻,这个观点建立在理解新闻媒体  
的既定规范和特殊的社会责任的基础之上。  
析句】句子主语是the idea,后面跟了一个定语从句(that the journalistordinary citizen),谓语是rests  
on,宾语是an understanding of the established conventions special responsibilities of the news media。  
讲词】 profound 意为“深刻的”,汉语中的“深远的意义”和“深远的影响”在译成英语时常用这个  
词。  
rest on 表示“建立在……之上;以……为基础(根据);依赖于,取决于”。《中国日报》一篇文章的标  
题:Reform Success Rests on Educating Officials 改革的成功取决于对政府官员的教育)。A lot of responsibility  
rests on your shoulders.(你的责任很重。)  
established 意为“既定的,确认的;约定俗成的”。  
convention 表示“大会;协定;习俗,惯例,规范”。  
4
1. In fact,it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian  
Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.  
译文】 实际上,很难想象那些对于加拿大宪法的基本特点缺乏清晰了解的新闻工作者如何能够胜任  
政治新闻报道的工作。  
析句】 it 是形式主语,实际主语是to see how journalistscan do a competent job on political stories,定  
语从句(who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution)修饰journalists。  
讲词】 grasp 在句中作名词,在此词义同understanding comprehension。  
competent 意为“有能力的,胜任的”。He is competent for the task.(他胜任这项任务。)You must find a  
competent executive assistant.(你应该找一位能干的行政助理。)  
stories 在句中表示“新闻报道”,等于news stories,如:political stories(政治新闻)。  
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
4
2. While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories,it is preferable for journalists to rely on their  
own notions of significance and make their own judgments.  
译文】 律师的评论和反应当然能够提升新闻报道的价值,但是,记者们最好还是依靠自己对于事件  
重要性的认识来做出判断。  
析句】 这是一个主从复合句,从句是while 引导的状语从句,主句是形式主语it 引导的句子,真实主  
语是to rely onjudgments。  
讲词】 reaction 意为“反应”,但根据此句可以理解为“感受;感想;回应”等。  
enhance 意为“提高,提升”。She had a sweetness to her face,a warmth that was enhanced by luminous dark  
eyes.(她的面容甜美,因那双明亮的黑眼睛而增添了友善。)Passing the English examination should enhance  
your chances of getting the position.(通过了英语考试该会增加你获得这个职位的机会。)句中enhance stories  
表示邀请律师对相关的报道进行评述或表达自己的感受会提升新闻的价值。  
significance 意为“重要性;意义”,在句中表示“新闻报道的意义”。Ones notion(understanding) of  
significance 表示“自己对某事意义的认识或理解”。  
1
. It is an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location,title,and salary,then E ?mails  
them when a matching position is posted in the database.  
译文】 它的特点是互动,允许访问者自定求职标准,诸如工作地点、职位和薪水。当资料库里出现  
与个人要求相匹配的工作岗位时,它就会通过电子邮件通知求职者。  
析句】 该句是一个典型的强调句,说明正是这样的互动特点(an interactive feature)。that 后面连接  
两个谓语动词结构,一个说明让访问者设定求职的标准,一个说明资料库里出现与个人求职标准匹配的工  
作岗位时会通过电子邮件通知求职者。such as location, title,and salary 以举例的方式说明job criteriawhen  
引导的时间状语从句说明资料库会在什么情况下通知求职者。  
讲词】 interactive 是一个流行词,意为“互动的,相互作用的”,其动词形式是 interact,名词形式为  
interaction。比如,“互动电视节目”可以说interactive TV program。  
post 作名词时表示“岗位,张贴”,作动词时有两个基本意思,一是表示“(张)贴”,例如:post a message  
on the internet(在网上发了一个帖子);二是表示“岗位分派”,例如:She was posted to the branch office in  
Nanjing.(她被派到设在南京的分公司。)  
2
. Instead,the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database;  
when you get E ?mail,consider it a reminder to check the database again.  
译文】相反,最佳的策略是把代理当作一种提示服务,以便及时跟踪某一资料库里的工作岗位信息。  
当你收到电子邮件时,把它当作是一种提醒,再去查一查资料库。  
析句】该句由两个分句组成,后一分句对前一分句作进一步解释。前一分句的主干是 the best strategy  
is to use the agentas 引导的介词短语结构意为“当作是……”。不定式结构to keep abreast of jobs in a particular  
database 表示目的。  
讲词】 tips 指小费,但也可以表示“提示”,即所谓的“(小)贴士”。作动词时, tip 表示“提供小  
费(或提示、信息等)”。注意该句中的词组tip service 的意思是“提示服务”。The police were tipped off about  
their plan to hijack the plane。(警方接到了线报,知道了他们的劫机计划。)  
abreast 意为“并肩地,并排地”,keep abreast of 是一个词组,表示“跟上,不落后于”。“与时俱进”  
用英语表示就是to keep abreast of the times。  
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. I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me, says the  
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
author of a job ?searching guide.  
译文】 一位职位搜索指南的作者说:“我不会依赖代理在添加到数据库里的所有内容中逐一寻找可  
能令我感兴趣的东西。”  
析句】 在这个句子中,定语从句that is added to a database that might interest me 修饰everything,其  
中定语从句that might interest me 说明a database。再加上主句是一个否定句,因而整个句子就显得复杂了。  
如果如下改写一下,相信就容易理解了:I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a  
database,but I would only try to find things that might interest me.  
讲词】 guide 作名词时意为“向导;指南;简介”,作动词时表示“带路;引导;指导;操纵;影响”。  
Martin guided him to the reception ?room. (马丁将他领到接待室。)He guided the company through the  
difficulties. (他带领公司渡过了难关。)Our youth people must be guided against the use of drugs. (应该引导  
我们的年轻人远离毒品。)  
4
. When CareerSite ?s agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service,for example,it  
includes only three potential jobsthose it considers the best matches.  
译文】 比如,当求职网(CareerSite)的代理向注册服务的用户发送信息时,它只提供三个它认为最  
可能匹配的岗位。  
析句】 该句子的主干是it includes only three potential jobsWhen 引导的是一个时间状语从句,在这  
个从句中又有一个定语从句who have signed up for its service,用来修饰those。破折号后的those it considers  
the best matches potential jobs 的同位语。for example 是插入成分,说明这是一个例子。  
讲词】sign up 指签名申请。You have to sign up for the service. 你只有申请才能获得服务。)当然sign  
up 有时就等于sign,例如:The record company has signed up the girl.(唱片公司刚与那个姑娘签约。)  
5
.Some use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on  
compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise.  
译文】 有些人利用它们(搜索代理)密切关注本行业的需求,或搜集有关补偿信息,为增薪谈判作  
好准备。  
析句】 该句的主干是Some use themto keep a close watchwork gather informationa raise 是  
两个并列的不定式结构,在句子中做目的状语。第二个目的状语又含有一个表示目的的不定式短语 to arm  
themselves when negotiating for a raise。  
讲词】keep watch 等于watch。例如:Keep watch on the market tonight,as the central bank may announce  
its decision to raise the interest rate.(今晚关注市场的动向,因为中央银行可能会宣布调整利息。)  
demand“要求;需求”。I think I have the right to demand for an explanation. 我认为我有权要求得到解释。)  
The demand for copper increased drastically in the second half of the year.(下半年对铜的需求有了大幅上涨。)  
compensation 主要含义是“补偿”,例如:Nothing can compensate the young mother for the loss of her favorite  
daughter.(年轻的妈妈丧失了自己心爱的女儿,这是任何东西也弥补不了的。  
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. This,for those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage,refers to discrimination against those whose surnames  
begin with a letter in the lower half of the alphabet.  
译文】 对于尚未意识到其不利之处的人来说,它指的是对那些姓氏起头字母位于字母表后半部的人  
的歧视。  
析句】 句子的主干是this refers to discriminationfor those as yet unaware of such a disadvantage 是一个  
作状语的介词短语,unaware of such a disadvantage those 的定语。全句的宾语是discrimination+介词短语  
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against those),whose surnamesthe alphabet 是修饰those 的定语从句。  
【讲词】 refer 作不及物动词意思是“参考,查询”。For further information, please refer to our website.(如  
需了解详情,请浏览我们的网站。)另一个常用的意思表示“提及,谈及”。He was referring to his experiences  
in Tibet.(他正谈及他在西藏的经历。)  
discriminate(或discrimination)表示歧视常跟介词against。注意discriminate(或discrimination)的基  
本意思是“区别对待”,有时表示to be able to tell the difference(s)You must in your writing discriminate  
between facts and opinions.You must in your writing discriminate facts from opinions.(你在写作时应该分清  
事实和观点。)  
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. It has long been known that a taxi firm called AAAA Cars has a big advantage over Zodiac Cars when  
customers thumb through their phone directories.  
译文】 人们早已知道在客户翻阅电话簿时,名叫AAAA 的出租汽车公司要比Zodiac 出租汽车公司有  
更大的优势。  
析句】 It has long been known that…是一个固定句式,意思是“人们早就知道……”。其中it 是形式主  
语,真正的主语是that 从句。而从句本身又是一个复合句,主句是a taxi firm called AAAA Cars has a big  
advantage over Zodiac Cars,其中分词结构called AAAA cars 是后置定语,修饰firm。句末的when 引导一  
个时间状语从句。  
讲词】 advantage 表示“优势,有利条件”,例如:It is to your advantage to invest wisely.(明智地投资  
对你很有利。)A better education gave us the advantage.(良好的教育使我们处于有利地位。)如果用于比较,  
advantage 后面跟over。  
thumb(拇指),在句中意为“用拇指翻书”。实际上,表示人体主要器官的英文单词都可以作动词,如  
head,eye,nose,hand,arm,foot 等。如to arm oneself 意为“把自己武装起来”。  
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. Thus the American president and vice ?president have surnames starting with B and C respectively; and 26 of  
George Bush ?s predecessors(including his father) had surnames in the first half of the alphabet against just 16 in  
the second half.  
译文】 因而,美国总统和副总统的姓氏分别是以 BC 字母起头。乔治·布什的前任有二十六位  
包括其父)的姓氏均在字母表的前半部,而姓氏在字母表后半部的却仅有十六位。  
析句】该句由两个单句组成。在第一个单句中,宾语surnames 后接一个作定语的分词结构starting with  
B and C respectively。在第二个单句中,宾语紧跟的介词结构 in the first half of the alphabet 作定语。against  
在此的意思是“与之相比”, against just 16 in the second half 意思是 against just 16 of George Bush ?  
spredecessors who had surnames in the second half of the alphabet。  
讲词】 predecessor(前任)的反义词是successor(继任)。应该记住两个的动词形式和形容词形式,  
分别是precede/succeedpreceding/succeeding。  
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. Can this merely be coincidence? One theory,dreamt up in all the spare time enjoyed by the alphabetically  
disadvantaged,is that the rot sets in early.  
译文】 这仅仅是巧合吗?按字母表顺序排名靠后的人在享受闲暇时光时凭空想出一种理论,认为这  
种倒霉事老早就开始了。  
析句】 问句之后的句子由于插入了一个过去分词引导的定语成分而显得复杂。 dreamt up…  
disadvantaged 作定语,修饰 theory。而在这个过去分词结构中又套了一个过去分词结构 enjoyed by the  
alphabetically disadvantaged,说明所谓的all the spare time。  
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
讲词】 coincidence 表示“一致,巧合”,例如:What a coincidence that I was in Paris at the same time as  
you!(真巧,我在巴黎时你也正在那里!)  
rot 表示“腐烂”,既是动词也是名词。the rot sets in 是成语,表示“事情节节失利”或“倒霉的事情不  
断发生”。  
disadvantaged 前面如加定冠词,则表示某一类人,the alphabetically disadvantaged 指按字母顺序排列不  
利的人。按字母排列有时甚至会产生政治问题。据说日本就因为不愿看到朝鲜(韩国)按英语字母排序在  
前而把其英文名 Corea 改成 Korea,这样就排在日本(Japan)的后面。阅读英文报章,我们会看到 the  
economically dis ?/ advantaged 以及the politically dis ?/advantaged。  
1
0. Shortlists for job interviews,election ballot papers,lists of conference speakers and attendees: all tend to be  
drawn up alphabetically,and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them.  
译文】 求职面试、选举投票、会议发言或参加会议等诸多名单,都是按字母表顺序排序的。当人们  
顺着名单费劲找人时兴趣也会变得索然了。  
析句】 该句由两个分句组成,第一个分句是all tend to be drawn up alphabetically,第二个分句是and  
their recipientsplough through them。冒号前的三个名词短语(Shortlistsspeakers and attendees)是第一  
个分句主语all 的同位语。在第二个分句中,as 引导一个时间状语从句。  
讲词】shortlist 表示“候选名单”或“备选名单”。ballot 表示“选票,投票”,既可作动词,也可作名  
词,与vote 的意思和用法差不多,但它可以表示“投票的总数”。 a secret ballot(秘密投票)。  
plough 作名词意为“犁”,作动词表示“犁,耕;费力穿行”。plough through 在句中意为对照名单费力  
寻找某个人的姓名。  
1
1. When it comes to the slowing economy,Ellen Spero isnt biting her nails just yet. But the 47 ?year old  
manicurist isnt cutting,filling or polishing as many nails as shed like to,either.  
译文】 谈到经济增长减缓时,艾琳·斯派罗还不至于咬指甲。但是,这位四十七岁的美甲师也不能  
如其所愿地修剪、锉磨、上油那么多的指甲了。  
析句】 第一个句子是一个主从复合句,主句是Ellen Spero isnt biting her nails just yet,从句是When  
it comes to the slowing economy。第二个句子和第一个句子以 but 分开,表明二者之间是转折关系。  
讲词】 bite ones nails(咬指甲)是一种焦虑不安的表现,可以表示“束手无策”。  
as(when) it comes to 意为“谈到,说到,提到”,类似的词组还有speaking(talking) ofSpeak of the devil  
and he comes.(说曹操,曹操到。)  
1
2. Im a good economic indicator, she says,I provide a service that people can do without when theyre  
concerned about saving some dollars.”  
译文】 她说:“我是个不错的经济晴雨表。在人们操心攒钱的时候,我提供的服务就变成可有可无了。”  
析句】 本句比较简单,但是必须了解do without 这个词组的含意。do without 意为“免除,不用”,或者  
没有……也可以;在没有某物的情况下设法完成”,例如:There was no television on the island,but we soon  
learned to do without.(岛上没有电视,可不久我们就适应了。)  
讲词】 concern 作名词时表示“关心,关切”,作动词时表示“关心,涉及”。Your health is of great concern  
to me.(我非常关心你的健康。)This concerns the healthy growth of the children deeply.(这事对孩子们的健康  
成长关系极大。)要表达对什么事或什么人表示关心或关切,可以套用to be concerned with(about for)这样  
的句型。例如:Were rather concerned about the operation of the company.(我们相当担心公司的运营。)  
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考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
1
3. Consumers seem only concerned,not panicked,and many say they remain optimistic about the economys long  
?
term prospects even as they do some modest belt ?tightening.  
译文】 消费者似乎只是关切,并没有惊慌失措。许多人说,即使稍微勒紧腰带,但他们对于经济的长  
期前景还是乐观的。  
析句】该句是一个并列句,and 后面的分句比较复杂,主干为many say,后接宾语从句they remain long  
term prospectseven as 引导一个让步状语从句。  
讲词】 panic 指“惊慌,恐慌”,既可作名词,也可作动词。注意 panic 作动词时,其过去式或过去分  
?
词是panickedWhen the theater caught fire,there was a panic.(剧院失火时,出现了一阵恐慌。)The crowd was  
seized with a panic,causing the deaths of dozens of people.(人群惊慌失措,导致数十人死亡。)  
optimistic(乐观的),optimist(乐观的人,乐天派),optimism(乐观,乐观主义)。相应的反义词是  
pessimistic(悲观的),pessimist(悲观的人,悲观派),pessimism(悲观,悲观主义)。  
prospect 意为“景色,前景,前途,期望”,有时与future(前途,未来)同义。例如:I am sure that the young  
man will have a promising prospect ahead in his life.(我相信那个年轻人会有美好的未来。)I see no prospect of  
his recovery.(我看不出他有痊愈的可能性。)  
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4. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock ?market swings,which investors now view as a  
necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside,too.  
译文】 许多消费者似乎一直受股票市场波动的影响,投资者现在把这种波动视为持续繁荣的必要因  
素。在餐馆就餐的人可能也看到了经济好转的一面。  
析句】 该句的主干是 Many consumers swings,之后的 which 引导一个非限定性定语从句,修饰  
stock ?market swings。  
讲词】swing 意为“摇摆,摆动,转变”,既可作动词也可作名词。“秋千”的英语就是swingThe leading  
newspapers in the country swung against the government.(国内主要的报纸转而反对政府。)swing voters 指左  
右摇摆,拿不定主意的选民。  
boom 基本词义有两个,一是拟声词(隆隆声,轰隆声),二是表示“繁荣”。炸弹的爆炸声就是boom。  
The booming economy has improved the people?s living standards. 繁荣的经济改善了人民的生活水平。)baby  
boom 指美国从二战结束到60 年代初的生育高峰,俗称“婴儿潮”,在这一时期出生的人就是baby boomer。  
upside 表示“上边,上面,上部”,也可以表示“优势,有利的一面”或“上升趋势”。  
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5. Razitchs latest book,Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms,traces the roots of anti-intellectualism in  
our schools,concluding they are anything but a counterbalance to the American distaste for intellectual pursuits.  
译文】 莱维西的最新著作《落后:一个世纪学校改革的失败》探索了学校里反智主义倾向的根源,  
书中的结论是:美国学校根本没有抵制美国人对才学追求的厌恶。  
析句】 句子的主干是Razitch's latest booktraces the roots…。书名Left Back…是book 的同位语,  
concluding 引导的是状语成分。句中的 they 指前面的 schools。注意 concluding…后面的宾语从句中各个词  
之间的肯定和否定关系。  
讲词】 trace 作名词主要指“痕迹,踪迹”,作动词表示“沿着,跟踪,追溯”。Age has left its traces  
on her face.(岁月在她脸上留下了痕迹。)  
anything but 的意思是“决不,远非”:I was anything but happy about going. 我根本不喜欢去。)Id rather  
be anything but ordinary.(我决非愿做一个平凡的人。)  
counterbalance “抗衡”:His wifes calm nature acts as a counterbalance to his excitability.(他妻子的沉  
着冷静抵消了他的火爆脾气。)The girls earnest effort counterbalanced her slowness at learning.(这女孩的刻  
苦努力弥补了她在学习上的迟钝。)  
distaste“讨厌”:Its a shame that she has a distaste for hard work.(她厌恶干重活,真是丢人!)  
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新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
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6. Encouraging kids to reject the life of the mind leaves them vulnerable to exploitation and control. Without the  
ability to think critically,to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others,they cannot fully participate in our  
democracy.  
译文】 鼓励孩子们排斥精神生活使得他们容易被人利用和控制。没有能力进行批判性的思考,没有  
能力捍卫自己的思想并理解他人的思想,他们就不能充分地参与我们的民主。  
析句】 第一句话的谓语动词是leaves,动名词短语充当句子的主语。第二句话中的三个平行的动词不  
定式to think criticallyto defend their ideasto understand the ideas of othersability 的后置定语。  
讲词】 vulnerable 意为“脆弱的,易受打击的”。We are vulnerable both by water and land,without either  
fleet or army.(由于没有舰队和军队,我们在水路和陆路上都易受攻击。)Women are more vulnerable to  
domestic violence.(女人更容易受到家庭暴力的侵害。)  
exploitation 意为“开发,开采,剥削,利用”。the exploitation of natural resources(自然资源的开发),ocean  
exploitation(海洋开发)。The country resented the economic exploitation by the colonists.(这个国家痛恨殖民  
主义对其所进行的经济剥削。)exploitation 的动词形式是exploit。  
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7. Intellect is resented as a form of power or privilege, writes historian and Professor Richard Hofstadter in  
Anti ?Intellectualism in American life,a Pulitzer Prize winning book on the roots of anti ?intellectualism in US  
politics,religion,and education.  
译文】 历史学家理查德·霍夫斯塔特教授在《美国生活中的反智主义》中写道:“才智被看作是一  
种权势或特权而遭厌恶。”这本曾获普利策奖图书奖的著作探讨了美国政治、宗教和教育中的反智主义的根  
源。  
析句】 此句的主语是historian and Professor Richard Hofstadter,谓语是writes,宾语是Intellect is  
resented as a form of power or privilegein Anti ? Intellectualism in American life 是状语,a Pulitzer Prize  
winning book 是书名 Anti ?Intellectualism in American life 的同位语,介词短语on the roots of education  
修饰book。  
讲词】 intellect 指智力,学习和推理的能力,或对知识的理解力和领悟力,也可指知识分子或有很  
高理解力的人。同根词有intelligent(聪明的),intelligence(聪明,智慧),intelligentsia(知识分子总称),  
intellectual(知识的,知识分子), intellectualism(知性主义)。所谓“知识产权”,英文为intellectual property  
rights。  
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8. From the beginning of our history,says Hofstadter,our democratic and populist urges have driven us to reject  
anything that smells of elitism.  
译文】 霍夫斯塔特说,自我们的历史之初,我们对民主化和大众化的渴望就驱使我们排斥任何带有  
精英主义色彩的东西。  
析句】这是一个简单句,句子的成分比较清楚。主语是Hofstadter,谓语是says,宾语是our democratic  
and populist urges have driven us to reject anything that smells of elitismFrom the beginning of our history 是时  
间状语。  
讲词】 populist 意为“民粹的,民粹主义者”。populism(民粹主义)是一个与 elitism(精英主义)  
相对的政治概念,前者强调对民众的依赖,而后者更重视社会精英( elites)的作用。  
urge 作名词时表示“驱策,鼓动,冲动,刺激”,例如:I had an urge to see him.(我迫切希望见到他。)  
democratic and populist urges 可以译为“民主和民粹思想冲动”。  
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新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
1
9. Ralph Waldo Emerson and other Transcendentalist philosophers thought schooling and rigorous book learning  
put unna ?tural restraints on children: We are shut up in schools and college recitation rooms for 10 or 15 years  
and come out at last with a bellyful of words and do not know a thing.”  
译文】 拉尔夫·瓦尔多·爱默生和其他一些先验主义哲学家认为学校教育和死啃书本抑制了孩子们  
的天性。“我们被关在中小学和大学的背诵室里十年或十五年,最后出来时满腹经纶却什么也不懂。”  
析句】 理解这句话并不难,但是有些单词和词组(或搭配)平时可能不大遇到。 transcendentalist  
意为“先验论者”或“先验论的”,schooling 等于education(教育),rigorous book learning(拼命学习或死  
啃书本),unnatural restraints(非自然的束缚),college recitation rooms(大学的背诵教室),a bellying of words  
相当于汉语的“一肚子墨水”或“满腹经纶”)。  
讲词】 restrain 是及物动词,意为“拘束,抑制”:She tried to restrain her surprise from being visible.  
她尽量不让自己的惊奇表露出来。)如要表示在什么方面进行限制,注意restraint(名词)和restrain(动  
词)后面所接的介词应该是 on restrain 的形容词形式是 restrained,类似的一组单词是 restrict(动词),  
restriction(名词),restricted(形容词,强调受限)和restrictive(形容词,强调是限制性的)。  
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0. Hofstadter says our country ?s educational system is in the grips of people whojoyfully and militantly  
proclaim their hostility to intellect and their eagerness to identify with children who show the least intellectual  
promise.”  
译文】 霍夫斯塔特说,掌握我们国家教育体系的人“喜不自禁地、咄咄逼人地宣扬对才智的敌视,  
并且迫不及待地认同那些看来最没有希望在才智上有造就的孩子。”  
析句】 本句的主干是 Hofstadter says,其中 people 后面的 who 引导一个定语从句 who joyfully…  
promise,children 后面又有一个 who 引导的定语从句。  
讲词】 militant 意为“好战的”或“好战分子”。The militant youths of the two tribes were blamed for the  
conflict.(外界认为两个部族好战的青年应对这场冲突负责。)  
proclaim 意为“宣告,宣布”(announce officially and publicly),其名词形式为 proclamation。  
hostility 意为“敌意,对抗”,其复数形式hostilities 常指“敌对的行为”或“战争”。例如:Hostilities broke  
out between the two countries following the border dispute.(在边境争端发生后,两国爆发了战争。)  
promise 除了表示“承诺,许诺”以外,还可表示“预示,暗示”或“(有)希望,(有)前途”。例如:  
a promise of spring in the milder air(和风预示着春天就要到来),a young player of great promise(一个很有前  
途的年轻演员)。  
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1. The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,which  
took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse language could be.  
译文】 希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的  
千差万别之前早就已在欧洲扎下了根。  
析句】 本句包含一个非限制性定语从句。句子的主语为The Greeks,谓语是assumedthat 引导一  
个宾语从句,而which 所引导的非限制性定语从句修饰这个宾语从句。在 which 从句中,how diverse language  
could be realized 的宾语从句。注意本句中 which 指代前面的句子,应译为“这一观点”,some 在此处应  
译为“某种”,而不是“一些”。  
讲词】 assume 意为“假定,采取,呈现,承担”,在句中的意思是“认为”。I assume you always get up at  
the same time.(我猜想你总是在同一个时间起床。)The motion of matter always assumes certain forms.(物质  
的运动总是表现为一定的形式。)He is soon to assume the CEO of the company.(他很快就要担任公司的首席  
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新浪微博@老曹考研  
考研命题测试学专家 曹天啸  
执行官。)  
take root 意为“扎根”。Extreme sports have taken root in China.(极限运动已经在中国扎下了根。)  
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2. We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished,as the peoples who spoke them  
died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages.  
译文】 我们感激他们,因为在此之后,由于说这些语言的部族或是消亡了,或是被同化而丧失了自  
己的本族语言,因而这些语言中有一部分已经消失了。  
析句】 句子的主干为We are obliged to thembecause 引导一个原因状语从句,其中又包含一个由as  
引导的原因状语从句。在as 从句里,主语是the people,后面跟着三个由不同的谓语动词组成的并列结构:  
died outbecame assimilated lost their native languages。  
讲词】 be obliged to 意为“感激”。I am obliged to you for your gracious hospitality.(我很感谢你的热  
情好客。)此外,oblige 可以表示“迫使,责成,帮助”。They obliged us by arriving early.(他们早早就来了,  
真是帮了我们大忙。)  
vanish 意为“消失,消亡”。Its like she just vanished in thin air.(她好像凭空消失了似的。)  
die out 意为“灭绝,消亡”。That tradition died out a long time ago.(那个传统早就消亡了。)  
assimilate 意为“吸收,同化”。We assimilate some kinds of food more easily than others.(我们对某些种  
类的食物比别的食物容易吸收。)The U. S. A. has assimilated people from many European countries.(美国同化  
了许多来自欧洲国家的移民。)  
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3. The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe  
and Southeast Asia that some scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.  
译文】 这些新近被描述的各种语言与经过充分研究的欧洲和东南亚的语言是如此显著地不同,以至  
于一些学者甚至指责博厄斯和萨皮尔编造了资料。  
析句】主句是The newly describedAsia,后面跟that 从句sothat…是一种典型的结果状语从句。  
对于不了解语言学的同学来说,理解 the newly described languages 可能比较困难。语言学中有一分支叫  
descriptive linguistics(描述语言学),这种学科只对语言进行描述性的研究。因此,the newly described  
languages 就可以译成刚被描述的语言。  
讲词】 strikingly different 意为“明显不同”,类似的说法还有markedly different obviously different。  
well studied languages 用英文解释是languages that have been studied well,即语言本身已经被研究得很深很透  
了。  
fabricate 意为“制作,构成,捏造,伪造,虚构”,例如:They fabricated evidence and threatened witnesses.(他  
们伪造证据并威胁目击者。)